(1) Companies and institutions rely heavily on their information system. Banks,online travel agencies, tax authorities, and electronic bookshops can be seen as ITcompanies, modern supermarkets given the Central role of organization. A businessprocess describes the flow of work within an organization, huge volumes of dataaccumulate. Data play an important role in contemporary organizations and must bestored, managed, and processed, which come into pay information system. Businessprocess and activities consists in an organization and technical environment.Organizations undertake promotional activities and offer their products at competitiveprices boost sales, but a product that is not available. Sale and marketing systems aredriven by software addressing the product, place, price and promotion. Aninformation system that supports the delivery goods to customer. These systems areto plan and schedule when and in what order customer receive their products. Thesesystems support the flow of money within and between organizations. Enterpriseinformation systems only support the production of products they also support thedesign of products. Many organizations aim to automate their business process.The various types of enterprise information systems have different levels ofgranularity. Five types of information systems; Transaction Processing Systems,Management information System, Decision Support Systems, Expect Systems andNeutral Networks, Information Systems in Organization. (Samo Bobek, VojkoPotocan, Simona Sternad, and Heri Spicka, June 2002)The business process of a virtual organization is organized according tomodels as a basis for workflow between partners. Structured and predeterminedprocesses require workflow automation and inter organizational information system,which support data exchange between information systems of partners in a virtualorganization. Information system controls the responsible person and the processflow. It needed forms input and output data on each process step. The four buildingblocks are networked process – e-business enabled direct co-operation betweenpartners and organization core process, business bus – e-business enabled co-operation between partners based on high level of standardization, electronic services– e-business enabled co-operation with externalized services, service integrator – e-business enabled co-operation with new player – information – within businessnetworking. Information systems (IS) existed in organizations long before the adventof information technology (IT) and, even today, there are still many systems presentin organizations with technology nowhere in sight. Information systems (IS) are themeans by which people and organizations increasingly utilizing technology, gather,process, store, use and disseminate information. Airlines, comparison websites, banksand some public agencies have systems where no human intervention is required.People can find it difficult distinguishing between IS and IT because the technologyseems to overwhelm their thinking, obscuring the business information system thatthe technology is intended to support. (Yu, 2004)(2) The history of information security begins with computer security. The need forcomputer security-that is, the need to secure physical locations, hardware, andsoftware from threats-arose during World War II when the first mainframes, developsto aid computations for communication code breaking, were put to use.Today, the Internet brings millions of unsecured computer networks into continuouscommunication with each other. The security of each computer’s stored information,as well as a realization that information that information security is important tonational defense. The growing threats of cyber attacks have made governments andcompanies more aware of the need to defend the computer-controlled control systemsof utilities and other critical infrastructure.A successful organization should have the following multiple layers of securityin place to protect its operations:Physical security, to protect physical items, objects, or areas from unauthorizedaccess and misuse.Personnel security, to protect the individual or group of individuals who areauthorized to access the organization and its operations.Operations security, to protect the details of a particular operation or series ofactivities.Communications security, to protect communications media, technology, andcontent.Network security, to protect networking components, commotions andcontents.Information security, to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability ofinformation assets, whether in storage, processing, or transmission. It is achieved viathe application of policy, education, training and awareness, and technology.(Learning)Information systems are frequently exposed to various types of threats whichcan cause different types of damages that might lead to significant financial losses.Information security damages can range from small losses to entire informationsystem destruction. The effects of various threats vary considerably. Currently,organizations are struggling to understand what the threats to their information assetsare and how to obtain the necessary means to combat them which continues to pose achallenge.Internet, organizations become vulnerable to various types of threats. In fact,their information becomes exposed to cyber attacks and their resulting damages.Threats come from different sources, like employees’ activities or hacker’s attacks.Vulnerabilities consist of weaknesses in a system which can be exploited the attackersmay lead to dangerous. (Mouna Jouini, Latifa Ben Arfa Rabai, May 2014)Threats are divides into two categories: technical and non-technical.Technical Data Security Threats to Information SystemsNon-existent Security Architecture. Network protection results in increasedvulnerability of the data, hardware, and software, including susceptibility to malicioussoftware (malware), viruses, and hacking. Security architecture is essential andprovides a roadmap to implementing necessary data protection measures.Un-patched Client Side Software and Applications. Computers run a variety ofsoftware applications, including older versions.”phishing” and Targeted Attacks . (e.g., hackers) target individuals andorganizations to gain access to personal information is through emails containingmalicious code-this is referred to as phishing. Once infected emails are opened, theuser’s machine can be compromised.Internet Web sites. Malicious code can be transferred to a computer throughbrowsing WebPages that have not undergone security updates.Poor Configuration Management. Weak data security protection measures that donot restrict which machines can connect to the organization’s network make itvulnerable to this type of threat.Mobile Devices. Mobile devices, laptops or handheld devices, including smartphones, are exploding; however, the ability to secure them is lagging behind. CloudComputing, Removable media, Botnets and Zero-day Attacks.Non-technical Cyber Security Threats to Information Systems: Insider, PoorPasswords, Physical Security, Insufficient Backup and Recovery, ImproperDestruction, Social Media, Social Engineering. Organization’s information systemand highlights the importance of implementing a broad approach to data securityprotection, encompassing both technical and non-technical solutions. (Center, 2011)Cybercriminals use many different methodsMalware: Malware could be computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, dishonestspyware, and malicious root kits-all of which are defined below.Computer virus: Computer virus is a small piece of software that can spread fromone infected computer to another.Rogue security software: Rogue security software designed to lure people intoclicking and downloading malicious software.Trojan horse: Trojan horse software simply by downloading an application theythought was legitimate but was in fact malicious. Trojan horse can do anything fromrecord your passwords by logging keystrokes.Malicious spyware: Malicious spyware is used to describe the Trojan applicationthat was created by cybercriminals to spy on their victims.Computer worm: Computer worm is a software program that can copy itself fromone computer to another, without human interaction.Botnet: Botnet is an group of computers connected to the Internet that have beencompromised by a hacker using a computer virus or Trojan horse.Spam: Spam in the security context is primarily used to describe email spam-unwanted messages in email inbox.Phisging: Phishing scams are fraudulent attempts by cybercriminals to obtain privateinformationRootkit: Rootkit is a collection of tools that are used to obtain administrator-levelaccess to a computer or a network of computers. (Sanchez, Dec 9, 2010)(3) The impacts of ransomware on business organization. Ransomware threatensto publish the victim’s data and organization’s data or perpetually block access to itunless a ransom is paid. Ransomware may lock the system, which it encrypts thevictim’s files, making them inaccessible and demands a ransom payment to decryptthem. Ransomware likely come about as a result of both improved education ofcomputer users and the work of both computer security professionals and antiviruscompanies. Ransomware the appearance of two new self-propagating threats in theform of WannaCry and Petya. Many organizations caused global panic, catching withinfections spreading rapidly across corporate networks.Ransomware sending to email addresses in addition to a growing number oftargeted attacks directed at organizations. Ransomware attacks, the compromise ofnetwork infection of multiple computers is locked, typically by encryption andpayment is demanded before the ransomed data is decrypted and access returned tothe victim.Ransomware is a type of malicious software from crypt virology that threatens topublish the victim’s data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.Ransomware may lock the system. Ransomware attacks are typically carried outusing a Trojan that is disguised as a legitimate file that the sure is tricked intodownloading or opening when it arrives as an email attachment. 2012 the use ofransomware scams has grown internationally. Its payload hid the files on the harddrive and encrypted only their names, and displayed a massage claiming that the use’slicense to certain piece of software had expired. Money collection method is a keyfeature of ransomware. The attacks in a field called Crytovirology, whichencompasses both overt and covert attacks. The Cryptoviral was inspired by theforced symbiotic.Ransomware will access prevent to system or data a solution. Ransomware canhave serious reputational safety and financial impacts on customers andorganizations. Limit the impact of a ransomware attack.Good access control is important. User privileges of compartmentalization canlimit the extent the encryption data.Ransomware doesn’t have to go viral organization; Good practice any wayand, recommendations make here.Have a backup of your data. Ransomware not getting in the place and back filesnot be accessible by machines at risk of ingesting ransomware.Ransomware targeted phishing emails, social engineering schemes, watering holeadvertising networks. Potential impact of ransomware; Patient medial history inaccessible, Patient medial history unavailable, Lab orders delayed, Lab results stalled,Prescriptions postponed because they cannot be ordered electronically, Medicaldevices inoperable, Monitoring PCs impact, Potential public relations controversy.(4) Organization prepared to at any time. No organization is too small to come underattack, so it is best to be prepared. Companies without a plan may waste valuable timetrying to organize a core team and put a strategy in place. Develop a cyber securityresponse plan.1. Educate Your C-SuiteCyber security breaches so frequently in the news. Firm or organizationunderstands how critical it is to have a plan in place.2. Create a StrategyCompany agree that being prepared to respond to a cyber security breach isimperative; it is time to develop an incident response plan. The goal of this plan is tomanage that will limit damage and minimize recovery time and costs. To begin,create a designated cyber security response team comprised of people from variousparts of the organization.3. Schedule a Postmortem MeetingAfter a cyber security breach or drill, host a meeting to discuss what went welland what could be improved in the future. This will ensure that you are betterprepared the next time around.4. Practice, Practice, PracticeTo familiarize the incident response team with these steps, drills should takeplace on a regular basis. Small scale drills mimicking low-impact incidents and largerscale drills that prepare the team for a significant attack should take place annually.Practice ensures that each person who is part of the incident response planunderstands his or her role. (Prepared for a Cybersecurity Attack, 2015)Every organization needs not only a response plan, but also a team that willimplement it. So, a key factor for success will be the support of senior management.Relevant stakeholders from departments that may be affected by an incident will needto be included as part of the response team. The technical staff, who will implementthe plan and possess the skills to remediate damage.Organizations shouldn’t feel that every position in the response team needs to befilled by in-house staff. External expertise should be considered for the specialistskills, and experience with similar incidents, that can be brought to the team. Thecomposition of the team also needs to be regularly reviewed.Testing the planTeams should adopt the model of: plan, do, check and act.Plan Establish objectives, policies and procedures to meet the requirements ofthe business.Do Implement these policies and procedures.Check Verify if these are effective at meeting objectives in practice.Act Take action to modify plans according to experience gained to refine andimprove. (Symantec)Cyber Security Top Tips to find out if you organization is fully protected against acyber attack.Malware Prevention; malware across your organization and protect all host andclient machines with antivirus solutions that will actively scan for malware.Password Security; May seem elementary are still extremely important whenensuring that everyone within your organization understands the implications of notfollowing password security policies.Network Security; A secure network that is robust enough to protect internal andclient data is essential. It is extremely important to have strong ACLs (access controlLists) on all network devices to prevent breaches by would-be hackers.Secure Configuration; A corporate policy and processes to develop secure baselinebuilds, and manage the configuration and use of your ICT systems are essential.User Privileges; The number of privileged accounts with control access to audit logsshould always be limited and regularly updated. Creating new user accounts, changesto user passwords and deletion of accounts and audit logs. The danger of notmanaging this correctly can mean information falling into the wrong hands.Incident Management; The incident management plans (including disaster recoveryand business continuity) all need to be regularly tested. Your incident response teamwill need specialist training across a range of technical and non-technical areas toensure they are fully prepared to handle any scenario.Monitoring; Monitoring strategy needs to take into account previous securityincidents and attacks, to contribute towards your organization’s incident managementpolicies.Removable Media; Removable media policies control the use of removable mediafor the import and export of information. Scan all media for malware using astandalone media scanner before any data is imported into your organization’ssystem.Home and Mobile Working; In order to develop appropriate security policies thatfully protect your organization you need to assess the risks to all types of mobileworking. Apply the secure baseline build to all types of mobile device used.(5) Employees working in public sector face ethic and working culture problems.They are constantly communicating with people, help them to solve their problemsevery day, inform people about governmental decisions. When having some contactwith employees at municipality, people judge the morality and working culture ofhigher officers and public institution according to their behavior. Therefore ethic andworking culture of municipality employees should be as high as possible. Ethic isimportant not only in communication with customers, it’s important also internally inthe organization, in the mutual relations between colleagues and staff members.Public officers meet various ethical problems at their work. Ethical problemsmight cause various different consequences. Ethical problems might occur anddisappear or have continuous character.The aim of article – to investigates the problems of ethics and working culture inpublic sector.Research objectives – the problems of ethics and working culture in publicsector.Research methods – analysis of scientific literature, analysis of legislation,survey with questionnaire, statistic analysis of the data, graphical modeling,specifying, summarizing and logical abstraction.We use notions of ethics, morality, virtue the other similar ones quite widely.Sometimes we use these notions in wrong places, very often we identify them, usethem as synonyms.The most common problems of ethics and working culture in the public sectorwould be the following: trick and lie; gifts, grafts, corruption; misuse; conflict ofinterests; sexual harassment.The ethical and working culture problem quite often met in the public sector istrick and lie. A trick might be also understood as a purpose or result seeking selfishinterests.Corruption means actions performed using tenable power, by which the legalnorms, interests of society and accepted norms of morality are breaches and by whichpersonal or group benefit is reached. Corruption is first of all an ethical and only thena legal or administration problem. Gifts, grafts, corruption are closely related.Society especially worries when it becomes clear that official status is used forpersonal purposes. The benefit received by the public officer is evaluated asinappropriate, not ethical and in many cases illegal. Public officers cannot get director indirect financial or other benefit from the official status. (Asta Raupeliene, DaliaPerkumiene, 2007)The main property-related political issue concerns the creation of new propertyprotection measures to protect investments made by creators of new software, digitalbooks and digital information.Many new technologies in the industrial era have created new opportunities forcommitting crime. Computer crime is the commission of illegal acts through the useof a computer or against a computer system. Computer abuse is the commission ofacts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical.Privacy is the claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance orinterference from other individuals or organizations, including the state. (Kenneth C.Laudon. Jane P.Laudon, 2018)References1. Asta Raupeliene, Dalia Perkumiene. (2007) 1. (8). 248-250. Problems of theethical and working culture of employees in public sector. Lithuanian Universityof Agriculture, Department of Administration and Rural development.2. Cengage Leauning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without expressauthorization.3. Eric Yu. Information Systems (in the Internet Age). University of Toronto. Toappear in: Practical Handbook of Internet Computing, M.P. Singh, ed. 2004 CRCRress.4. Samo Bobek, Vojko Potocan, Simona Sternad, and Heri Spicka. June 2002.Information Systems in Virtual Corporations. Faculty of Economics and Business,University of Maribor,Slovenia.5. Kenneth C. Laudon. Jane P. Laudon.