Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

1Before, on the foundation of this country.

1Before, During, and After the American RevolutionThe American Revolution was a major event for the founding of the United States of America.  The events leading up to it, during it, and even after it had major effects on the foundation of this country. During the years of 1754-1763 the French and Indian War was a war between the British Empire and their Native allies and the French Empire and their Native allies.  The conflict was over territory in the New World and who claimed what and who wanted what.  This seven year war was fought mainly on the frontiers between the New France and British colonies.   In 1755, six colonial governors in North America met with the British General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four way attack on the French forces.   None of the planned attacks succeeded, and the main attack led by Bradock ended in disaster.  He and his men lost the Battle of Monongahela, he was able to successfully withdraw but he died a few days later.  Almost all British operations failed in the frontier areas of Pennsylvania, and New York during the years of 1755-57, all due to the lack of management, internal divisions, very effective and efficient enemy scouts, effective French forces, and Indian warrior allies.  Finally after multiple defeats the British captured the French Fort of Beauséjour, on the border of Nova Scotia and Acadia.  Soon after the forts capture the expulsion of Acadians was ordered, expelling all Acadians, even those who swore loyalty to the British Crown.  Even the Indians were driven off the land to make way for British settlers, trappers, and hunters.  2The British colonial government fell in the wake of multiple failed campaigns in 1757, including the failed expedition against Louisbourg, and the siege of Fort William Henry.  Finally it ended with Indian warriors torturing and massacring their British captives.The aftermath of the Seven Years War, was very tough on the American colonist.  It cost the British Empire a lot of money.  With this debt, the Crown imposed heavy taxes on the American colonies, most of them very unfair.  The Stamp Act and Tea Act were the major catalyst of the rising revolution.  These acts triggered the Sons of Liberty to take action and perform the Boston Tea Party, where they dumped tons of tea into the Boston Harbour.  With this news reaching Great Britain they imposed the Coercive Acts. These acts took away the colony of Massachusetts way of their self government, historic rights, which triggered outrage and resistance in the American colonies.  They were also some of the key factors in igniting the the American Revolutionary War.  The reason Great Britain did this to Massachusetts, was to make an example of them and show the power they had over them.   A fifth act, the Quebec Act, enlarged the boundaries of what was then the Province of Quebec and instituted reforms generally favorable to the French Catholic inhabitants of the region; although unrelated to the other four Acts, it was passed in the same legislative session and seen by the colonists as one of the Intolerable Acts.  Then came the Townshend Acts, the ones that made the tensions between the American colonies and the British Empire reach its climax.The Patriots viewed the acts as a violation to the rights of Massachusetts, so in September of 1774 they created the First Continental Congress to plan a protest to these awful acts.  Tensions 3escalated quickly until finally the American Revolution broke out.   This Revolution lead to the Independence of an new country, The United States of America. “On the 23rd, Henry presented a proposal to organize a volunteer company of cavalry or infantry in every Virginia county. By custom, Henry addressed himself to the Convention’s president, Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg. Henry’s words were not transcribed, but no one who heard them forgot their eloquence, or Henry’s closing words: “Give me liberty, or give me death!”(“Patrick Henry’s ‘Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death’ Speech.” Patrick Henry’s “Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death” Speech : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site).The American Revolution, a colonial revolt led by Great Britain’s 13 American colonies against Britain itself.  The tensions erupted between the two countries when British soldiers tried to capture and destroy colonial military supplies in the cities of Lexington, Kentucky and Concord, Massachusetts.   The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish, and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists.  The Patriots realized they would have to suppress the Loyalism in their own colonies, because of this they made the  Provincial Congress which assumed the power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism within the colonies.  With this new type of government in place they also made the Continental Army under the leadership of George Washington.  The Continental Army faced defeats but also many victories, such as the Battle of Saratoga.   The war finally reached its end with the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, with the victory of American troops under the command of General George Washington and French troops under the command of Comte de Rochambeau with the defeat of British Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.  4The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation’s complete separation from the British Empire.  The United States of America took almost all territory east of the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes.  Great Britain retaining Canada, and Spain taking Florida. The time after the war was a time of peace but also hard work, it was known as “America’s Critical Period”.  The founding fathers having to get their new type of government in place, accepted by the new states of the United States of America, and getting it to run efficiently.  The new government was quite weak during this time. . The Congress of the Confederation lacked the power to accomplish anything by itself, and each state could veto the major actions of the Congress. Congress also lacked the power to raise its own revenue, regulate foreign or interstate commerce, or effectively negotiate with foreign powers. The weakness of this new Congress proved self-reinforcing, as the leading political figures of the day served in state governments or foreign posts. The failure of the national government to handle the challenges facing the United States led to calls for reform and frequent talk of secession.  It was extremely hard for the Congress to keep all the states together,  because each one wanted to do their own type of government. After Congress tried to make many amends to the Articles of Confederation and ended up failing, many national leaders met in Philadelphia in 1787 to establish a new, more efficient constitution.  The new constitution of the United States was ratified by the states in 1788.  The new Federal government began meeting in 1789.  This marked the end of the new country’s Critical Period.”Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” — Benjamin Franklin, American Statesman, Scientist, Philosopher, Writer and Inventor in the 18th Century.


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