2.1 Explain ways in which social,
political and economic factors influence education policy.
Dewey describes education as being the “development
of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his
environment and fulfill his possibilities.” But at times factors may have more
to play towards our future, such as social, political and environmental
influences on education.
Educational facilities reflect the social blueprints that
exist within a country. Therefore the education system is seen as a social
factor that reflects the philosophy of those people within its grounds, and
every society consists of individuals and regardless of their economical state
they will have some sort of educational system.
Education and social change are interlinked as education
provides and distributes a better understanding towards our society and
culture, and social change is the catalyst towards educational thought. One without
the other would prevent advanced development. There are a number of reasons
education is required in society these include:
can start new social changes and gives individuals direction and purpose.
establishes social reformers and the leaders who strive to bring about
Education determines the nature of social
changes, as it gives individuals ideas on what can be improved on. Changes
in society can include civilization change, cultural change and change in
prepares the individual for social changes. It brings a change in the need
– dispositions and also frustrations with the status. Relationship between
education and social change” (Ramaswamy.S, 2013).
Dewey states’ ” by various agencies unintentional and
designed, a society transforms uninitiated and seemingly alien beings into
robust trustee of its own recourses and ideals. Education is thus a fostering,
venturing and cultivating process. All of these words means that implies
attention to the condition to the growth”.
Education and social change in the UK have been
influenced by a number of different aspects these include:
Present educational needs.
Past and present existing realities i.e. the older
generation trying to adapt education with the growing knowledge of technology.
Individuals living situation i.e. urban elite and rural
areas have different educational opportunities due to class size and economy.
Youth have a need of belonging and want fuller
involvement with society.
New school academies.
Education depends heavily on the economical prospect of
the country. Economic factors in turn influence the content, method and
resources of an education system. If the economic condition is poor the
education becomes less important and begins to fall behind in comparative to
stronger more economically stable countries where the education is prioritised.
In these stronger countries they use curriculum and educational ambitions to
make the country more prosperous. For example in Japan the educational system
is constructed so they can make there pupils strong and capable so once they
graduate and work they are responsible independent adults. On the other hand in
India once students graduate they are incapable of progression as they do not
have any life skills and thus employability increases.
Another economic influence on education is that lower
class citizens within a community or area are more likely not to prioritise
further education for their children and are quite happy with them achieving
the minimum required education (GCSE). In contrast the majority of individuals
from an upper class background are more likely to have children graduating from
university as they can meet the costs of tuition fees. But if we apply this to
the UK this is not always the case as there are grants, bursaries and loans provided
therefore educational opportunities are somewhat balanced.
Another economic factor that can effect education is the
growth (development of knowledge) of a society or individuals. The education
system should be able to provide opportunities via resources and curriculum
change to help expand the development of individuals, because through this
development we can guarantee the progression of a nation.
The political ideology which controls the government of a
country also has an impact on education and educational policy. The political
factors will decree the educational systems administration as well as funding
provided to state schools. These factors will also inspire the features and
function of an educational system as each political party has different views
and policies. Jeremy Corbyn represented the Labour party in the 2017 elections, “Labour’s manifesto would provide schools in England with
an extra £6bn annually………. they would also oppose grammar schools, expand free
school meals provision to cover all primary-age pupils and reintroduce the
Education Maintenance Allowance for lower-income students in further education”(
Matt Broomfield, 2017).