Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

A account. Moreover, a number of studies

A vegetarian is
someone who excludes meat, poultry, and seafood from hisher diet. Some
vegetarians also exclude dairy, and some may consume eggs.  There are four main types of vegetarian diets:
a lacto-ovo-vegetarian consumes dairy products and eggs but no meat, poultry,
or seafood, a lactovegetarian eats dairy products but not eggs, meat, poultry,
or seafood, an ovo-vegetarian eats eggs but no dairy products, meat, poultry,
or seafood, and a vegan does not eat any animal products, including meat, fish,
eggs, poultry, and dairy products, many vegans will also avoid honey.  Vegetarianism has many effects on human body.

Vegetarians
generally have a lower body mass index (BMI) and tend to be more health
conscious than non-vegetarians, health outcomes remain better even when these
factors are taken into account.  Moreover,
a number of studies have shown increased longevity among vegetarians.  Research has linked higher intakes of red meat
and processed meat with an increased risk of obesity.  A large study investigating the association of
a wide range of meat intakes with chronic disease mortality found that both red
and processed meat intakes were associated with modest increases in total
mortality, cancer mortality, and CVD mortality. Low meat intake, however, has
been associated with greater longevity.

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The EPIC-Oxford
study compared weight gain over 5 years in almost 22 000 meat-eating,
fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women.  Weight gain was lowest in the vegan group and
those who, during follow-up, had changed to a diet containing fewer animal
foods (key, T. Appleby, P. & rosell, M. 2006).  The same study reported a significant
difference in age-adjusted BMI between the 4 diet groups, with meat eaters
having the highest BMI, vegans the lowest BMI, and fish eaters and vegetarians
a similar. Foods such as whole grains and nuts are more regularly consumed by
vegetarians and have been independently associated with a reduced risk of
obesity and weight gain. A higher intake of red meat, on the other hand, has
been associated with an increased risk of weight gain.

Cardiovascular
Disease, “The most consistent evidence for the health benefits of a
vegetarian diet relates to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and
coronary disease mortality” (Sabate. 2011, p.78).
Several studies have demonstrated a lower incidence of CHD, and a combined
analysis of  5 prospective studies
reported a 24% lower risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease in
vegetarians compared with meat eaters, with lactoovo vegetarians having a 34%
reduced risk and vegans a 26% reduced risk. The benefit was apparent in those
who had followed their diet for at least 5 years and was greater in younger age
groups. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that vegetarians
generally have a better cardiovascular risk profile than non-vegetarians, with
lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, a lower body
weight, and a lower incidence of diabetes, and hypertension, all of which
contribute to CVD risk.

Some
vegetarian diets might be anticancer. cancer rates in vegetarians appear to be
moderately lower than others living in the same communities, and life expectancy
appears to be greater. However, results for specific cancers are less convincing
and require more study. Most of the research conducted on vegetarian diets and
cancer has involved lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Of the studies looking at vegan
groups, most only cover a short period of time or a small group. Furthermore,
many Western vegetarians choose a meat-free diet for its health benefits in
addition to other health or lifestyle practices, such as abstaining from
smoking and avoidance or moderate consumption of alcohol which are also linked
with cancer risk.

In
conclusion, well-planned vegetarian diets are not only nutritionally adequate
but also provide many health benefits, particularly in the prevention and
treatment of many chronic diseases. In fact, in Western countries, a vegetarian
diet may present a significant advantage over meat-based diets, and a number of
studies have shown increased longevity in vegetarians. Although potentially
lower in some nutrients, careful planning can help ensure that both vegetarian
and vegan diets meet all the current recommended intakes for essential
nutrients as well as maximize the intake of protective components present
widely in plant foods. In fact, a vegetarian diet may well be one of the best
ways to meet population dietary guidelines.

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