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A Public Health Concern Biology Essay

Acquired immune lack syndrome is a disease which affects the immune system and is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) . To be infected with HIV is to be HIV-positive, but this lone occurs when the virus earnestly amendss the immune system, does one hold AIDS ( Sepkowitz 2001 ) . This status increasingly reduces the operations of the organic structure ‘s immune system and leaves persons susceptible to timeserving infections and tumours. HIV transmittal occurs through direct contact of a mucose membrane or within the blood stream with a bodily fluid incorporating HIV, such as blood, vaginal fluid, seeds, pre-seminal fluid, and chest milk. Transmission involves anal, vaginal or unwritten sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, contaminated subcutaneous acerate leafs, biological exchange between female parent and babe during gestation, childbearing, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids ( Steven 2007 ) . Although interventions for AIDS and HIV can decelerate the class of the disease, there is presently no vaccinum or remedy. Antiretroviral intervention can successfully cut down both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV/AIDS infection, although these drugs can be expensive and everyday entree to antiretroviral medicine may non be available in all states. AIDS was foremost recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s ( Schneider 2008 ) . In 1981, the first instances of AIDS were identified among cheery work forces in the United States, geting the appellation, GRID ( Gay-Related Immune Deficiency ) . However, scientists has uncovered grounds that the disease has existed in the universe for some old ages prior, i.e. , subsequent analysis of blood samples of a Congolese adult male, who died of an unknown disease in 1959, made him the first confirmed instance of an HIV infection ( The History of AIDS 2012 ) . As of 2010 about 34 million people are been septic HIV worldwide. Approximately 16.8 million of these are female and 3.4 million are under 15 old ages of age. There 1.8 million recorded deceases in 2010, which is down from 3.1 million in 2001. ( UNAIDS 2011 )

Cancer is another serious wellness issue that, like HIV/AIDS, is major concern in footings of public wellness. Cancer is non a individual disease, but a larger group of about 100 diseases ( Medical Dictionary 2012 ) . While normal cells in the organic structure follow a normal procedure of growing, division and decease, malignant neoplastic disease cells grow irrepressibly and make non decease. Programmed decease of normal cells is termed programmed cell death, and when this procedure is disrupted, malignant neoplastic disease begins to organize. In contrast to normal cells, cancerous cells do non undergo programmatic decease but continue to turn and split. This can ensue in the formation of a mass of unnatural cells that grows wild. Cancer becomes a danger to the organic structure when damaged cells divide in this unmanageable manner to organize multitudes of tissue called tumours ( except for leukaemia where malignant neoplastic disease inhibits normal blood maps by guerrilla cell division in the blood watercourse ) ( What is Cancer? What Causes Cancer? 2012 ) . Tumors grow and interfere with the nervous, digestive and circulative biological systems, and can let go of endocrines that alter some of the organic structure ‘s maps ( Medical Terminology List 2012 ) . The more malignant, tumours form when two things happen: a cancerous cell travels throughout the organic structure via the lymph or blood systems and destroys healthy cells in a procedure called invasion and when the cell divides and grows, doing new blood vass to feed itself in a procedure called angiogenesis. Symptoms of malignant neoplastic disease can change and is depend on where the malignant neoplastic disease is located, where it has spread, and the size of the mass or tumour is. There are some malignant neoplastic diseases can be felt or seen such a ball on the chest or testis which can be an index of malignant neoplastic disease in those locations. Skin malignant neoplastic disease is frequently observed by a alteration in a wart or mole on the tegument. Some unwritten malignant neoplastic diseases are discovered by the white spots inside the oral cavity or white musca volitanss on the lingua. Other malignant neoplastic diseases have symptoms that are less obvious physically. Some encephalon tumours tend to show symptoms in the early phases of the disease as they affect of import cognitive maps. Symptoms besides can be created when the tumour grows and imperativenesss against variety meats and blood vass. Colon malignant neoplastic diseases, for illustration, are indicated by irregularity, diarrhoea, and alterations in stool size ( Jackse 2011 ) . Recent studies have indicated that in 2007, malignant neoplastic disease claimed the lives of over 7 million people in the universe. In 2008 more than 12 million malignant neoplastic diseases were diagnosed and 7.6 million people died of malignant neoplastic disease globally ( Jemal et al 2011 ) .

The Relationship

Hiv does play a function in cancerous growings in people who are HIV-positive. This is because HIV attacks the immune system, which protects the organic structure from infections and disease so that. a weaker immune system is less able to contend off diseases, like malignant neoplastic disease ( HIV and Cancer: What is the Link? 2012 Department of Health ) . Peoples with HIV have a high hazard of developing certain malignant neoplastic diseases, such as Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical malignant neoplastic disease. For individuals populating with HIV, these malignant neoplastic diseases are frequently called “ AIDS-defining conditions, ” which means that if a HIV infected individual has one of these malignant neoplastic diseases it can mean the development of AIDS. This relationship between AIDS and Cancer has been termed “ AIDS-Related Cancers ” . It should be emphasized that AIDS related malignant neoplastic disease is non straight caused by the AIDS virus, but a combination of factors. The connexion between HIV/AIDS and certain malignant neoplastic diseases is still an vague country, but the nexus likely depends on a weakened immune system. Certain bad factors like smoke and genetic sciences that affect those without AIDS may be increased in those with HIV/AIDS ( Cancer.net 2012 ) .

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Kaposi sarcoma is a signifier of skin malignant neoplastic disease that has traditionally occurred in older work forces of Judaic or Mediterranean descent, immature native African males, or people who have had organ grafts. This malignant neoplastic disease can turn into reddish-purple spots on the tegument but may be benign. It can, nevertheless, be lifelessly if it spreads to the pharynx or lungs. Today, Kaposi sarcoma is found most frequently in homosexual work forces with HIV/AIDS and is related to an infection with the human herpes virus 8 ( HHV-8 ) . Kaposi sarcoma in people with HIV is frequently called epidemic Kaposi sarcoma. HIV/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma instances may do lesions to originate in multiple countries of the organic structure, including the tegument, lymph nodes, and variety meats such as the liver, lungs, and colon.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma ( NHL ) is a malignant neoplastic disease which affects the lymph system. This malignant neoplastic disease normally starts in the lymph secretory organs, which are built-in to the immune system to assist contend off diseases. Lymph secretory organs are located chiefly in the cervix, weaponries cavities, in the inguen, and inside the belly. The Epstein-Barr virus is a hazard factor for this malignant neoplastic disease. The lymph system consists of thin tubings that branch out to all parts of the organic structure and its occupation is to contend infection. The lymph system carries lymph, a transparent fluid that contains white blood cells called lymph cells which are critical for contending sources in the organic structure. Groups of bantam, bean-shaped variety meats or lymph nodes are located throughout the organic structure at different sites in the lymph system. These are found in bunchs in the venters, inguen, pelvic girdle, underarms, and cervix. Other constituents of the lymph system include the lien, which produces lymph cells and filters blood ; the Thymus, an organ under the sternum ; and the tonsils, located in the upper pharynx. There are many different subtypes of NHL. The most typical subtypes of NHL in people with HIV/AIDS are primary cardinal nervous system lymphoma which affects the encephalon and spinal fluid, primary gush lymphoma, which causes fluid to construct up around the lungs or in the venters, or intermediate and top-quality lymphoma ( Cancer.net 2012 ) .

Cervical malignant neoplastic disease begins in a adult female ‘s neck, the lower, narrow portion of the womb which holds the turning foetus during gestation. The neck connects the lower portion of the womb to the vagina and together they form the birth canal. Females with HIV/AIDS have a higher hazard of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN ) , a pre-cancerous growing in the neck that is normally associated with the human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection. High-grade CIN can turn into invasive cervical malignant neoplastic disease ( Cancer.net 2012 ) .

Other, more uncommon types of malignant neoplastic disease that may develop specifically in people with HIV/AIDS are Hodgkin lymphoma, angiosarcoma which is a type of malignant neoplastic disease that affects the liner of the blood vass, anal malignant neoplastic disease, liver malignant neoplastic disease, oral cavity and pharynx malignant neoplastic disease, lung malignant neoplastic disease, testicular malignant neoplastic disease, colo-rectal malignant neoplastic disease, and other types of tegument malignant neoplastic disease including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ( Cancer.net 2012 ) .

Impact on Public Health

Both Cancer and HIV/AIDS are invariably tossed about when discoursing public wellness. There have been countless enterprises to dress early sensing, bar, and control of these two wellness diseases. Institutions from both governmental and non-profit societal and human-centered have been rather active in seeking to extenuate the diseases and its far making effects. These effects range from economic to societal and even political. The epidemics have already had negative impacts on assorted population subsets and it is compromising successes achieved in public wellness. HIV/AIDS is seen as the most preventable and as such is more sharply approached in the public wellness sphere. Aside from the cost of bar programmes such as those that market abstention and safe sex, there is besides the immense cost of anti-retroviral drugs. Additionally, societal and human-centered groups are abundant and normally give their resources to supply curative and other signifiers of guidance every bit good as contending stigmatisation against individuals populating with HIV/AIDS. Cancer research is besides a enormously expensive enterprise and intervention is typically extortionate: chemotherapy and other signifiers of intervention including assorted scans and trials. Quite frequently these costs are borne by the Government and other province or state-assisted bureaus. As such it can be seemingly discerned that this is a heavy load on public wellness systems. It increases the demand for wellness services while at the same clip gnawing the capacity for presenting wellness services in other countries. It creates spreads in major countries such as the loss of accomplishment, societal investing and national security. Additional disbursals are incurred by orphan attention. The concern sector besides incurs high costs of preparation, insurance, payments of benefits, and loss of production and productiveness by absenteeism due to vomit leave caused by the diseases. A disquieting illustration of the cost to public wellness can be seen in HIV /AIDS outgo in parts such as Sub-Saharan Africa which consumes about half of entire wellness coverage. This comes at a terrible chance cost to disbursement in other critical public wellness countries such as wellness and nutrition, safe H2O supplies, battling infant mortality rates among infinite others. Similarly the fiscal costs of malignant neoplastic disease are high for both the individual with malignant neoplastic disease and for society as a whole. The National Institutes of Health ( NIH ) estimated the 2007 overall one-year costs of malignant neoplastic disease were as follows: direct medical costs and indirect mortality costs cost of lost productiveness due to premature decease is $ 123.0 billion


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