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A Scottish Framework For Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

The Scots Government, in cooperation with the Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland ( FREDS ) , is confer withing on a model for the development and deployment of renewable energy in Scotland. This complements proposals in the parallel audience papers on a Renewables Energy Strategy issued in June by the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform ( BERR ) . The Scots Government intends that its proposed model should lend to the Scots component of the UK National Action Plan for renewable energy if and when the proposed EU directive on renewable energy comes into force.[ 1 ]The Scots Government and FREDS would welcome treatment of and remarks on the proposals in this papers by 1 December 2008 – topic to that feedback, we plan to fix and print a concluding Model by early 2009.

Promoting the development and deployment of renewable energy is a cardinal facet of run intoing the Scots Government ‘s intent of advancing sustainable economic growing in Scotland. The Scots Government ‘s Economic Strategy identifies energy as a precedence sector of the economic system with renewable energy development lending both to committednesss to cut down C emanations and to advancing growing. Relevant indexs are included in the Government ‘s public presentation model and are being supported by local authorities excessively. These are: working towards an emanations decrease mark of 80 % by 2050 ; and a mark that 50 % of Scots gross electricity ingestion should come from renewable coevals in Scotland by 2020, with 31 % by 2011.

Renewable energy is non the lone agencies by which to cut down C emanations from energy coevals and usage. For illustration, we will go on to necessitate thermic coevals and must cut down C emanations from coal and gas coevals excessively. But these are non either/or picks – we are taking both a decrease in C emanations and for the growing benefit to be gained from accomplishing a taking border in new engineerings. However, we will, in seeking to advance renewable energy, take into history the benefits and costs of different engineerings both in relation to chances for growing and for C decreases.

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Scotland is on path to run into its mark of run intoing 50 % of gross electricity ingestion from renewable coevals. The most recent electricity statistics ( for 2006 ) indicate that renewable coevals was tantamount to 16.3 % of Scots gross electricity ingestion. The Scots Government has recognised, nevertheless, that we need to do advancement on renewable energy more by and large, i.e. taking into history heat and conveyance every bit good as electricity. We believe that a challenging, necessary and accomplishable aim is 20 % renewable energy by 2020. This aligns with the EU mark but goes higher than the 15 % likely to be required of the UK as a whole. It is besides of import to emphasize that this is in no sense a cap but instead an interim phase towards our more long term vision for renewable energy in Scotland, where we see Scotland playing a prima function in concurrence with European spouses in developing and providing renewable energy to a wider market.

The challenge of cut downing C emanations will be made easier if we can cut down energy ingestion. This papers provides a sum-up of current actions for context but is non confer withing on this issue. We propose to publish an Action Plan on Energy Efficiency and

Micro-generation in the close hereafter.

This papers seeks positions on the Scots Government ‘s proposed 20 % mark. It sets out what we are making and what more we need to make to accomplish this mark. Meeting it will necessitate action by a scope of spouses – industry, authorities and its bureaus, research workers and more. We besides need to work efficaciously in a UK and EU context. The latter will be assisted by the Scots European Green Energy Centre which will get down work subsequently this twelvemonth.

These are disputing marks ; we want to work in meaningful partnership with all stakeholders to accomplish our aims. Your responses will assist the Scots Government, working with FREDS, to pull up a Model which can be the docket for our combined attempts.

Remarks should be sent by 1 December 2008 to

Robin Allison Renewable Policy Team Scottish Government 2nd Floor, Meridian Court 5 Cadogan Street Glasgow, G2 6AT

Tel: 0141 242 5819

Electronic mail: robin.allison @ Scotland, gsi.gov.uk 2. Why renewable energy?

Renewable energy is identified as a precedence in the Strategy for Economic Development since it offers important potency for assisting present the Scots Government ‘s cardinal intent of sustainable economic growing.

The Scots Government ‘s proposals for an ambitious Scots Climate Change Bill include puting a ambitious statutory mark of cut downing Scotland ‘s emanations by 80 % by 2050.

The Scots Government has identified support for the EU Energy Policy for Europe as one if its 5 chief precedence countries under its European Action Plan.

The Scots Government is committed to work towards the accomplishment of 20 % of entire Scottish energy usage coming from renewable beginnings by 2020, in line with the overall EU attack.

There is chance to tackle considerable natural resources and purchase considerable comparative advantage from those resources and the strengths of our Academic and Engineering base.

2.1. Economic development

The Scots Government has set out in its Strategy for Economic Development ( the Government Economic Strategy ) its cardinal intent:

to concentrate the Government and public services on making a more successful state, with chances for all of Scotland to boom, through increasing sustainable economic growing.

Energy is identified in this scheme as a precedence sector. Within this renewable energy offers chances for growing, while besides lending to carbon emanations. 0ur natural resources, research base and wider energy strengths which give chances for transportation of engineering and expertness, together provide competitory advantage. We have the chance to:

provide reliable, locally produced sustainable beginnings of energy ;

generate greater and more widely shared employment ;

make more extremely skilled and better paid occupations ;

foster a self-sufficient and ambitious clime of entrepreneurial progress ;

promote economic activity and investing across Scotland, thereby sharing the benefits of growing ;

conveying a civilization of assurance and personal authorization to Scotland ; and

secure a high quality environment today and a sustainable bequest for future coevalss.

Sum of Electricity Generation from Renewable Beginnings as Proportion of Whole Demand ( 2006 )

9.9 %

-4.7 % -1.0 % v0.7 %

Hydro

Wind, Wave and Solar

Landfill Gas

Other Biofuels

2.1.3. Scotland ‘s oil and gas industry demonstrates how we can thrive, with a bunch of supply-chain companies developed at peak periods of production now germinating into a critical mass of high-value, internationally-orientated activities. Scotland has the chance, in Marine and offshore energy in peculiar, to develop a similar economic strength. Scotland has an chance, in Marine and offshore energy in peculiar, to develop clear economic benefits at place every bit good as forcing frontward the boundaries of research with a global impact and benefit. In add-on to a scope of support available for renewable energy development, the Scots Government has announced the A?10 million Saltire Prize, the largest individual invention award in the universe. The Saltire Prize will be unfastened to entrants from across the universe, will concentrate on Marine renewable energy and will raise Scotland ‘s profile as a leader in invention and in renewable energy in peculiar. The Saltire Prize will do Scotland a universe leader in the development of Marine renewable engineering. The challenge for the Saltire Prize will be announced in December 2008.

The Saltire Prize was announced by First Minister Alex Salmond in Washington DC in April 2008.

Simply put, invention awards are successful when people want to win them. We want the Saltire Prize to accomplish the profile that will breed the sort of return on investing that makes invention awards successful.

The cardinal elements of the Saltire Prize are:

capturing imaginativenesss: challenge that can animate a revolution in green energy

planetary challenge: high profile award unfastened to squads from across the universe

relevant to Scotland: relevant to country in which Scotland has strong natural resource and can be demonstrated in Scotland

capitalises on Scotland ‘s expertness: challenge will reflect country in which Scotland has strong proficient expertness and people already working

accomplishable in the short-medium term: challenge ideally accomplishable within a 2-5 twelvemonth timeframe

With over 16 per cent of electricity already generated by renewables, Scotland is a world-leader in alternate energy. The Saltire Prize capitalises on Scotland ‘s strengths and carries the potency for Scotland to progress its ain economic system and energy independency while doing a significant part to the universe ‘s most urgent challenges www.scotland.gov.uk/saltireprize

2.2. Climate Change

2.2.1. Climate alteration is one of the most serious menaces confronting Scotland and the universe. The most terrible planetary effects include famine, drouth and the extinction of species. The graduated table of clime alteration happening at nowadays is unprecedented and grounds points to this being caused chiefly by human activities. Scotland continues to breathe nursery gases at a rate disproportionate to our size, and our ingestion forms are unsustainable. The chart below shows net emanations of both C dioxide and all nursery gas emanations between 1990 and 2005 in Scotland, as recorded in the Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland[ 2 ].

Figure 3

2.2.2. The Scots Government was represented at official degree, as portion of the UK deputation, at the 3rd meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in Bali in December 2007. The conference achieved an historic discovery in holding a roadmap to accomplish a planetary trade by the terminal of 2009. The roadmap recognises that deep cuts in planetary emanations are needed. The conference agreed to turn to the four ‘building blocks ‘ of extenuation, version, engineering and funding. Agreements were besides reached on turn toing deforestation, work to speed up investing in engineering, and a fund to back up version in developing states.

2.2.3. Before the launch of the clime alteration and energy enterprise in 2007, the EU had committed to cut downing its corporate nursery gas emanations by 8 % compared to 1990 in order to lend to the Kyoto Protocol mark of 5.2 % overall. The UK portion of the EU corporate mark was 12.5 % . The cardinal board for accomplishing the EU mark is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme ( EUETS ) which began in January 2005 and is the largest nursery gas emanations merchandising strategy in the universe. The strategy is compulsory for big emitters, screens around 50 % of Scots net CO 2 emanations and is designed to guarantee that emanations decreases are made where they are most cost-efficient.

2.2.4. Against this background and taking a strong lead, the Scots Government has consulted on proposals for a Scots Climate Change Bill, including a mark to cut down emanations by 80 % by 2050 – further inside informations can be found at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scotland.gov.uk/climatechangebill. The Bill will put a clear, long-run legal model thereby leting concerns, administrations and persons to put in energy and C salvaging engineerings with certainty. The audience on the Bill closed on 23 April 2008. Over 21,000 responses were received and a study on the analysis of the audience responses was published on 20 August 2008. The Scots Government program to present the Scots Climate Change Bill into Parliament before the terminal of 2008.

2.3. Scotland in Europe and in the United Kingdom 2.3.1. Further developments have been taking topographic point at a European degree. At the Spring European Council on 8 and 9 March 2007, EU Heads of Government agreed an ambitious one-sided adhering mark to cut down Europe ‘s nursery gas emanations by at least 20 % by 2020 ( compared to 1990 degrees ) and to increase this committedness to a 30 % decrease if an international understanding is reached. In parallel with this determination a new Energy Policy for Europe was agreed, which set a figure of aims including the undermentioned cardinal marks:

an betterment in energy efficiency in order to salvage 20 % of the EU ‘s projected energy ingestion in 2020 ;

a binding mark for renewable energy to do up 20 % of overall EU concluding energy ingestion ( i.e. non merely electricity ) by 2020 ; a binding mark for renewables to do up a lower limit of 10 % of conveyance gasoline and Diesel ingestion by 2020.

2.3.2. The Commission published on 23 January 2008 a bundle of steps to assist implement these marks, including a bill of exchange comprehensive model directive for renewable energies[ 3 ]. It covers the three energy sectors: electricity, conveyance, and energy used for warming and chilling. It aims to supply a model for increasing the portion of renewable energy to 20 % of concluding EU energy ingestion, including sharing out this mark amongst Member States, and ( within this mark ) a 10 % portion of renewable energy in conveyance gasoline and Diesel ingestion. It addresses criterions and requires national action programs to be prepared for each Member State by 31 March 2010. The national action programs shall put out Member States ‘ marks for the portions of energy from renewable beginnings in conveyance, electricity and warming and chilling in 2020, and equal steps to be taken to accomplish these marks, including national policies to develop bing biomass resources and call up new biomass resources for different utilizations, and the steps to be taken to guarantee issues such as entree to the grid and the environmental sustainability of biofuels. The Council and Parliament have begun consideration of the bill of exchange directive and anticipate consideration to be taken frontward during the Gallic Presidency of the Council in the 2nd half of 2008.

The Scots Government has identified support for the EUs ‘ Energy Policy for Europe ( EPE ) as one of its 5 chief precedence countries under its European Action Plan. It aims to place Scotland as a leader in the development of green, sustainable energy and to act upon the development of EU policy to back up this purpose. This will non merely assist clime alteration aims but help the growing of energy as a cardinal economic sector in Scotland.

The Scots Government is committed to work towards the accomplishment of 20 % of entire Scottish energy usage coming from renewable beginnings by 2020, in line with the overall EU attack. In this context it is:

working with the UK Government and European spouses on the deductions of the proposed renewables directing, including the ways in which Scotland can run into the 20 % mark and the deduction of the directive for our long term programs to export some of our huge renewables possible to our European neighbor ; intended that this proposed Renewables Framework should lend to the

Scots component of the UK National Action Plan for renewable energy, which will be required under the proposed EU directive ;

working with the UK Government and European spouses on analogues proposed directives on Carbon Capture and Storage and Emissions Trading ; taking forward, with support from the European Energy and Research Commissioners, the constitution of a Scots European Green Energy Centre. This will develop webs and partnerships with research and deployment organic structures for green energy in like minded states designed to advance the deployment of green energy engineerings and contribute towards the new marks of the EPE. It will circulate throughout Europe the consequences of this work, and keep seminars and conferences for faculty members and practicians.

2.3.5. Scots Curates have a scope of powers which they may utilize to advance the development of renewable energy ( while taking into history other considerations such as protecting the environment ) . But facets of energy development – and in peculiar market issues associating to electricity coevals and transmittal – are regulated under policies set by the UK Government. The Scots Government is committed to seeing the market develop in manner which provides a robust and just model for renewable energy development and removes barriers in its manner while supplying a just trade for consumers and energy users more widely. The Scots Government therefore maintains a close duologue non merely with Departments of the UK Government but besides with UK broad organic structures working in the energy field such as Ofgem Further inside informations are given in relevant subdivisions in this papers.

2.4. Sustainable economic growing

We could go Europe ‘s biggest exporter of renewable energy if we take robust advantage of our possible. Scotland ‘s emanations, and the possible to cut down emanations in Scotland, are different from the remainder of the UK. Equally good as our air current and marine potency we have in our woods both a subscriber to biomass energy and the ability to absorb CO2. The bulk of the UK ‘s forest country is in Scotland and the Scots Government proposes spread outing forest screen from 17 % of the land country to 25 % . In this context we will look carefully at how the public estate can lend farther to renewable marks.

The Strategy for Economic Development includes a national public presentation model, covering all public sector organic structures in Scotland including local governments, against which advancement towards the overall Government intent should be judged. This includes an overall interim mark of cut downing emanations by 2011 and a longer term mark to cut down overall emanations by 80 % by 2050. It besides includes a national index to accomplish 50 % of gross electricity ingestion from renewable beginnings by 2020, with an interim mark of 31 % by 2011. Our aim is that actions to accomplish these marks should, every bit far as possible, besides contribute to accomplishment of marks for growing of the economic system, to raise Scotland ‘s GDP growing rate to the UK degree by 2011 and to fit the GDP growing rate of the little independent EU states by 2017.

In seeking to accomplish the aims of energy policy we need good grounds. For the benefit of all policy countries we are presently developing tools and counsel that will assist policy shapers to measure the C impact of policies in a mode consistent with national and international duties. This will enable the designation and quantification of specific C impacts and timescales during policy rating and will therefore guarantee that clime alteration impacts are considered as portion of the policy development procedure. This applies to renewable energy in the same manner any other development ; for illustration the impact of air current farms on peatlands is one of the issues that are now taken into history in sing new applications for consent.[ 4 ]

2.4.4. Developing a comprehensive attack to renewable energy provides chances to run into climate alteration marks, show our committedness to shared European and international aims and contribute to sustainable economic growing in Scotland. It besides provides a existent platform to develop the industries of tomorrow in affairs every bit diverse as electricity coevals and heat and insularity engineering which can put Scotland at the taking border of states which are doing the most of the chance to present both sustainable economic growing and C marks at the same clip. This model will supply the footing for investing in our state ‘s hereafter.

3. Energy Efficiency

Bettering energy efficiency is widely recognised as the easiest and most cost-efficient agencies of cut downing C dioxide emanations and demands to be pursued in analogue with steps to increase renewable energy usage. This will hold benefits in footings of occupation creative activity in merchandises and services.

We fund the work of the Energy Saving Trust and its web of Centres and the Carbon Trust in Scotland to offer advice and support to the domestic, concern and public sector on how to better their energy efficiency.

The Scots Government is utilizing edifice criterions and the planning system to assist accomplish low C edifices.

We are developing and implementing a CERT Strategy[ 5 ]for Scotland in partnership with the energy supply companies, the Energy Saving Trust and Ofgem.

We will go on to work with the UK Government to see what extra energy efficiency steps could be adopted across the UK to be efficaciously cut down C emanations.

We are committed to continually reexamining, bettering, simplifying and streamlining programme bringing to guarantee that support is efficaciously targeted.

We will put out in 2008 our Energy Efficiency and Micro-generation Action Plan, sketching the actions we are taking and program to take across Government.

We [ are sing the recommendations of the Fuel Poverty Forum on redesigning our fuel poorness programmes, to guarantee they provide maximal aid to those fighting with high fuel measures

Developing renewables is merely one portion of our overall attack to developing sustainable energy production and usage in Scotland. Demand for energy continues to turn. Under current forms of production, this leads to increased C emanations and tends to drive higher energy monetary values. Bettering energy efficiency is widely recognised as the easiest and most cost-efficient agencies of cut downing C dioxide emanations and demands to be pursued in analogue with steps to increase renewable energy usage.

The fiscal benefits of puting in energy efficiency are clear: – industry and society can accomplish more with less energy, public services are delivered at lower cost, and fuel poorness is reduced. Better insulated edifices and more energy efficient workplaces cut energy measures for homeowners and concerns. Energy efficiency can besides be achieved through better pattern in our usage of energy ( exchanging visible radiations off, less usage of standby ) . Reducing demand in these ways besides puts less force per unit area on energy supplies.

The Stern Review states that:

Surveies by the International Energy Agency show that, by 2050, energy efficiency has the

possible to be the biggest individual beginning of emanations nest eggs in the energy sector. This would

hold both environmental and economic benefits: energy-efficiency steps cut waste and

frequently save money.[ 6 ]

Stern goes on to propose that decreases in planetary CO2 emanations due to greater energy efficiency could be between 31 % and 53 % of the entire decreases accomplishable by 2050.

However it is non ever clear that persons and administrations to the full realise the benefits that can be achieved through simple energy efficiency steps. There are still barriers to be overcome: devising usage of and moving on clear and sure information, break if plants are taking topographic point, and the initial fiscal investing – although most energy efficiency steps save money in a comparatively short clip. A cardinal component of our attack is to increase the quality of information available to people and concerns to let them to make better informed determinations about ways to pull off more efficaciously their energy usage.

The Scots Government has devolved duties for the publicity of energy efficiency and takes on the ambitious function of altering behavior through raising consciousness and supplying advice and fiscal inducements to better energy efficiency across the populace, concern and domestic sectors. The Scots Government financess:

support provided by the Carbon Trust and the Energy Saving Trust ;

a new web of energy nest eggs advice Centres in Scotland

an interest-free loan strategy for SMEs ;

an energy efficiency fund for the public sector ;

fuel poorness programmes.

The Scots Government besides supports Envirowise, which provides advice to concern and the public sector on waste bar, the efficient usage of H2O and cut downing unneeded usage of natural stuffs. Much of Envirowise ‘s work ( e.g. cut downing the unneeded usage of natural stuffs ) will besides hold energy efficiency benefits. The Scots Government is sing whether alterations could be made to the resource efficiency programmes it supports, to supply a more joined-up service to the consumer.

The Scots Government is besides utilizing edifice criterions and the planning system to assist accomplish low C edifices. The Sullivan study recommends staged additions in energy criterions for new edifices to well cut down emanations, with a route-map to the end of zero C edifices. The impact of the recommendations are presently being investigated and it is intended that proposals for alterations to the energy criterions will be issued to consultation early following twelvemonth, with a position to alterations being introduced in 2010. Work to forestall waste and addition recycling besides has energy efficiency benefits. For illustration, it frequently takes less energy to do new merchandises from recycled stuffs than from virgin stuffs. The Scots Government besides plans to confer with on farther steps to cut down energy usage and emanations from bing lodging to enable us to construct on the impact of current energy efficiency and fuel poorness programmes and to lend to our emanation decrease aims. Further betterments to lodging energy efficiency are cardinal to this and, traveling frontward, the usage of renewable energy beginnings alongside a more energy efficient lodging stock, will go progressively of import.

Some regulative powers associated with energy efficiency are the duty of Westminster, for illustration, the duty on energy providers to back up energy efficiency steps by their clients through the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target ( CERT ) . The Scots Government is concerned that Scotland may non be profiting to the full from CERT and we want to guarantee a more strategic and incorporate attack to maximizing the impact of CERT in Scotland. We are hence developing and implementing a CERT Strategy for Scotland in partnership with the energy supply companies, the Energy Saving Trust and Ofgem. During 2008, regulation-making maps were transferred from the UK Government to Scottish Ministers which will enable Scotland to implement to the full European Community duties refering energy efficiency at industrial workss.

We will go on to work with the UK Government in such countries and promote them to see what extra energy efficiency steps could be adopted across the UK to be efficaciously cut down C emanations. For illustration, an accelerated axial rotation out of advanced shows and metering engineerings, and more accurate charge in places, could assist to raise public consciousness of what activities use the most energy and what alterations in behavior produce the greatest decrease in energy ingestion.

The Scots Fuel Poverty Forum was reconvened in May to rede Curates on the best manner to take forward fuel poorness programmes in future. They will describe to Ministers shortly, and curates will see and implement their recommendations every bit shortly as possible. Energy companies have agreed to work with the Government on supplying a bundle of insularity steps, funded under CERT, to fuel hapless families, and we anticipate that this may organize portion of any future fuel poorness programme.

Traveling frontward we want to guarantee that we have the right inducements in topographic point to promote energy efficiency and micro-generation – we are committed to continually reexamining, bettering, simplifying and streamlining programme bringing to guarantee that support is efficaciously targeted.

We besides want to guarantee that we create the right conditions to back up the developing low C engineering industry so as to construct consumer assurance and transform the market from early adoptive parents into widespread take-up. The freshly established Scots Construction Industry Low Carbon Steering Group brings together a scope of spouses including the edifice trades, academic research workers, endeavor webs, accomplishments and preparation administrations, designers and Government. Its chief focal point is to place the action needed by Government and others to take advantage of our strengths and drive a booming low C edifices industry in Scotland.

The Scots Government will put out how it is interpreting cardinal aims into action through an Energy Efficiency and Microgeneration Action Plan. This will take into history responses to the old disposals ‘ audience on a bill of exchange Energy Efficiency and Microgeneration Strategy which ran during 2007. An analysis of the responses to this audience, and a separate Scots Government response to the issues raised during this audience, were published in June 2008. Action will besides reflect the consequences of the independent reappraisal of energy efficiency and micro-generation support in Scotland undertaken by Halcrow and published in June 2008, and the audience on the Scots Climate Change Bill which seeks positions on farther inducements to promote energy efficiency.

We besides need to alter the manner we treat waste heat, doing certain it can be treated as a resource and used expeditiously whenever possible Whether it be from power Stationss or computer/office air conditioning or procedure works we should ever seek to capture, shop and recycle it where economic to make so. The Scots Government is fixing counsel individually for thermic applications for s36 consents for electricity coevals, and this will include counsel on heat affairs.

Sustainable Conveyance

In the conveyance sector, we are promoting energy efficiency by working with UK Government on economic steps, such as the debut of new strias of Vehicle Excise that will honor vehicles with low emanations and put new higher sets for the worst polluting autos. Regulative steps include a compulsory European attack to new auto CO2 emanation criterions, where a mark of 130gmC02/km is presently being negotiated for 2012. In developing a longer term mark for emanations decrease, the UK have called for a longer- term mark of 100g/km by 2020.

To promote behavioral alteration in the conveyance sector, Scots Government support for coach services is considerable, amounting to some A?280 million per twelvemonth. This significant investing is intended to assist the industry drive down menu costs, promote more paths and enable more older and handicapped people to utilize these of import services. This complements communicating programmes to advance more efficient and environmentally cognizant driving being developed by the Energy Saving Trust. The Safe and Fuel Efficient Driving run encourages efficient runing patterns in the draw industry, which helps cut down fuel ingestion. The continued support and publicity of Traveline Scotland is farther supported by development of new counsel and resources for Travel Planning via www.chooseanotherway.com, which provides advice to administration to promote staff and visitants to utilize more active and sustainable manners of travel on the commute to work every bit good as concern travel.

The Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme supports presentation undertakings in towns and metropoliss to exemplify what can be achieved through a concentrated programme of walking and cycling substructure betterment aboard steps such as travel programs for workplaces, schools and persons, personal travel selling and publicity of active travel and public conveyance.

A Cycling Action Plan for Scotland ( CAPS ) will be developed in 2008-09 through audience event with the people of Scotland and stakeholders, with the end of acquiring more people to rhythm more frequently. This grass routes attack to cycling policy development will assist to determine an action program that will be meaningful to everyone. It will be helpful to local governments in developing their individual result understandings and local conveyance schemes, and besides to cardinal authorities in determining policy around the Government ‘s Economic Strategy and the National Performance Framework.

Decision

Our committedness to develop renewable energy is portion of our overall committedness to a more sustainable usage of energy, of which energy efficiency every bit good as sustainable conveyance signifier portion. We are taking forward proposals in these countries through a figure of different enterprises and will seek to guarantee that our policies across these separate but

related countries work in the same way towards shared ends. We will see the extroverted study of the Fuel Poverty Forum on redesigning our fuel poorness programmes, to guarantee they provide maximal aid to those fighting with high fuel measures

From now to 2020

4. Achieving 20 % of energy ingestion from renewable beginnings

The Scots Government is acute to play an active and prima function in the overall European committedness to increase the portion of renewable energy to 20 % of concluding EU energy ingestion by 2020.

The Commission has proposed a load sharing agreement across the EU, taking into history the current state of affairs on renewable energy in each Member State and the comparative GDP of each state. The UK ‘s proposed portion is 15 % , up from the current figure of under 2 % . Scotland will be expected to lend to the UK ‘s overall portion and to play a portion in the UK National Action Plan.

The Scots Government believes that Scotland should draw a bead on to a higher figure than the UK as a whole, and would wish to take for the figure of 20 % of overall energy usage. To make this figure important advancement above current degrees will be required in all sectors. This audience papers considers the scope of steps that will be needed and how we propose, in concurrence with the UK as a whole, to acquire at that place. It is besides of import to emphasize that this is in no sense a cap but instead an interim phase towards our more long term vision for renewable energy in Scotland, where we see Scotland playing a prima function in concurrence with European spouses in developing and providing renewable energy to a wider market. We will look at traveling farther than this if it is possible and practical to make so.

4.4. In sing the part that Scotland will do, the undermentioned issues should be taken into history ( please note that these statistics are our current best estimation and will necessitate polish as better statistics become available ) .

The current dislocation of entire energy usage by sector in Scotland is 45 % heat ; 29 % conveyance ; and 26 % electricity.

The current % of energy usage from renewable beginnings in Scotland, broken down to electricity, heat and conveyance, is as follows:

Electricity[ 7 ]– 2002 – 12 % of gross electricity ingestion ; 2006 – 16 % Heat – 2002 1 % ; 2006 1 %

Biofuels in gasoline and Diesel[ 8 ]– 2002 0.01 % ; 2006 0.44 %

Overall ( Scots concluding energy ingestion ) – 2002 3.4 % ; 2006 4.6 % .

On the footing of renewables supplying 50 % of gross electricity ingestion ( our current mark ) , and 10 % of conveyance usage[ 9 ], and renewables in heat remaining at 1 % , renewable beginnings would supply some 15-17 % of entire energy usage in Scotland by 2020.

If renewable electricity reached 50 % and transport 10 % , renewable heat would necessitate to increase to at least 11 % of entire heat usage for renewables as a whole to account for 20 % .

If renewable heat remained at 1 % and transport 10 % , renewable electricity would necessitate to lift to at least 62 % of gross electricity ingestion for renewables as a whole to account for 20 % .

If renewable heat remained at 1 % , and conveyance besides remained at 1 % , renewable electricity would necessitate to lift to at least 69 % of gross electricity ingestion for renewables as a whole to account for 20 % .

4.5. The working premise behind this audience papers is that we should do advancement in all three countries in order to supply a flexible mix, therefore conveying concern benefit to a broad scope of economic sectors. Our preferable option to run into the 20 % mark is to take for at least 50 % of gross electricity ingestion from renewable beginnings, some 11 % from heat and some 10 % from conveyance.

Questions for argument

Make consultees hold that we should take at 20 % to run into the 2020 mark and that advancement should be made in all three sectors of electricity, heat and conveyance?

If non – why non?

The remainder of the papers looks at different signifiers of energy usage, the chances each nowadayss and the ways in which development may necessitate to be facilitated. Readers may therefore privation to reflect on those chapters before reacting to this inquiry.

5. Renewable Electricity

Aim: to ease the development of renewable electricity so as to cut down C emanations and advance economic growing every bit good as to enable greater development of the renewable energy resource and drive down costs.

In run intoing our 2011 interim mark of 31 % of gross electricity ingestion from renewable beginnings we expect the huge majority of new capacity to be delivered by extra onshore air current power Stationss. Smaller graduated table developments – air current and hydro – are valued for their part to energy supply and community benefit and we wish to promote the development of these.

Onshore air current will go on to increase beyond 2011 playing a strong portion in run intoing our 2020 mark, but we besides expect offshore air current, Marine and tidal and biomass to do important parts in the following decennary. The Scots Government wants to back up the development of emerging engineerings so as to accomplish a balanced mix of renewable coevals.

The Scots Government supports powers in the UK Energy Bill which will let the proviso of changing degrees of support for different engineerings under the Renewable Duty Scotland ( ROS ) mechanism, therefore driving the development of less mature engineerings.

To accomplish our aims important additions in grid capacity will be required, both onshore and offshore. The Scots Government is in duologue with BERR and Ofgem to guarantee that regulative mechanisms are aligned to the full with the demand to work renewable resources – which are found preponderantly in Scotland.

A major survey on grid security concludes that the Scottish transmittal web could get by with 8 GW of installed renewables capacity in 2020 without the demand for important investing, other than that which has already been approved by Ofgem, and without adversely impacting upon grid system stableness or system security.

We are looking frontward to the growing of offshore air current and marine energy and sing possible for export. We are working with European spouses to look at how current grid governments might develop in the hereafter and specifically the feasibleness of seaward grids ( “ supergrids ” ) , which will be indispensable as we move beyond 2020 towards big scale exports of renewable electricity.

5.1. Introduction

Development of new bring forthing capacity is led by the private sector moving within a regulated market. In doing investing determinations, developers will take into history any fiscal benefits which may ensue from renewable energy as compared with other options for investing and will take into history any existent or sensed barriers to the realization of their undertaking proposals.

The Scots Government therefore recognises the demand to supply a policy context which will promote investing, while at the same clip equilibrating energy aims with other aims such as protection of the natural environment.

5.1.3. This chapter looks foremost at how our mark of run intoing 50 % of gross electricity ingestion from renewable coevals in Scotland by 2020 might be achieved, and at what part we might moderately anticipate from different engineerings. The subsequent subdivisions set out how the Scots Government is taking action to ease investing and take barriers, whether by:

moving straight itself ;

seeking to act upon UK and EU policy ;

back uping industry in its single and corporate actions.

5.2. Coevals Structure

5.2.1. Scotland ‘s electricity is presently produced by a little figure of big coal, gas and atomic generating Stationss, together with a larger figure of smaller renewable works. ( chiefly established hydro and onshore air current ) . This is illustrated in the chart below.

Sum of Electricity Generated, By Energy Source ( 2006 )

Hydro pumped storage

We wish to travel to a much greater proportion of renewable energy, together with cleaner coevals from coal and gas. Scotland ‘s possible renewable electricity capacity, as illustrated in the chart below, has been estimated by old surveies to be about 60 GW – sufficient to run into peak demand for power about ten times over. The graduated table of the resource dictates that there is possible for significant exports to the remainder of the United Kingdom and neighboring states in Northern Europe. In developing the resource ( s ) , both regulatorsand developers need to take into history environmental and other restraints and guarantee that C benefits are considered every bit good as fiscal costs. With this in head, nevertheless, renewable electricity represents a major economic chance for Scotland which needs to be pursued over clip, including the necessary investing in Marine and tidal engineering in peculiar and in the subsea grids which will be needed to transport the electricity to market. As such, advancement towards 2020 demands to be seen as a stepping rock towards more significant exports in the following decennary and beyond, instead than an terminal in itself.

Renewable Electricity Potential

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The Scots Government is on path to run into its renewable electricity marks of 31 % of gross electricity ingestion by 2011 and 50 % by 2020. This is non a cap, but a measure on the manner to our longer term vision, and we will look at traveling farther than this if it is possible and practical to make so. We believe that precise marks for the part of different engineerings are non appropriate. This will be a affair determined mostly by the market and by accepting determinations, albeit influenced to a important extent by policy mechanisms such as the Renewables Obligation. However, we have examined different scenarios in order to be satisfied that marks can be met and to place actions necessary to accomplish these.

Our marks relate to run intoing gross electricity ingestion – which is measured and expressed in GigaWatt hours ( GWh ) , i.e. in footings of existent end product instead than installed capacity. Installed capacity will non run at full potency all of the clip, and will be influenced by such factors as conditions conditions, down clip for fixs etc. Wind, for illustration, is categorised as “ variable ” or “ intermittent ” energy with onshore air current presenting from 25-45 % of theoretical potency, depending on the site in inquiry. Hydro can run at degrees of 40- % plus, while thermic workss ( gas, coal and biomass ) operate at 85 % of capacity. This variableness has to be taken into history when gauging the sum of installed capacity that might be required to run into our marks.

On the premise that renewable beginnings will run at 30 % of theoretical potency, we estimate that we will necessitate 5 GW to accomplish the 2011 mark and 8.3-8.4 GW to accomplish 50 % by 2020. Current installed renewables capacity is about 2.8 GW. There is a farther 1.7 GW of capacity approved under the Electricity Act ( i.e. above 50 MW ) under building, and about 2.5 GW of capacity of Section 36 applications in the system, with more ( smaller undertakings ) being approved and considered by councils. We have offered pre- application sentiments on a farther 2 GW of possible developments. We expect many farther applications which will feed into 2020 capacity. However, leting clip for the application procedure and building, undertakings which will lend in 2020 will likely hold to be in the planning system by 2017. Prior to that information assemblage is required and, in the instance of emerging engineerings, proving and refinement of devices. It will besides be of import to widen the life-time of the Renewable Duty beyond 2017.

Some 1.6 GW of current capacity is in the signifier of hydro electricity, with the balance coming from onshore air current and a little sum of biomass and offshore air current. For 2011 we expect the huge majority of new capacity to be delivered by extra onshore air current power Stationss. Onshore air current will go on to increase beyond 2011, but we besides expect offshore air current, moving ridge and tidal and biomass to do a important part in the following decennary, as set out in the following chapter. It is excessively early to do elaborate anticipations of the balance in engineering while inside informations of the manner the Renewables Obligation will work are being finalised, but by manner of illustration, the dislocation might be on the undermentioned lines:

Technology

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