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Alternative Systems Of Medicine Biology Essay

In recent times, the fact that modern allopathic redresss cause uncomfortable and sometimes harmful side effects has seen many people move towards more traditional systems of medical specialty like Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy. Each of these systems is based on a few rules that are alone in explicating the cause and intervention of diseases and upsets.

As per Hindu tradition, Lord Dhanvantari, a signifier of Lord Vishnu, is considered the presiding divinity of wellness. The holistic system of intervention propounded by the spiritually exalted holy sages of India is known as Ayurveda. The name Ayurveda is obtained from the words – Ayur intending “ life ” and Veda intending “ cognition or scientific discipline ” . Thus, Ayurveda is nil but the “ Science of Life ” . This system of medical specialty is said to hold evolved over 5000 old ages ago. The focal point in Ayurveda is non merely wellness of the physical organic structure, but an mentality that provides for the self-actualization of adult male. It is, hence, a entire health care system that speaks of the interrelatedness of the organic structure, head and psyche.

“ Life ( ayu ) is the combination ( samyoga ) of organic structure, senses, head and transmigrating psyche. Ayurveda is the most sacred scientific discipline of life, good to worlds both in this universe and the universe beyond. ” – Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana, ( 1.42 – 43 ) .

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S. NO.





Internal Medicine


Shalakya Tantra

Surgery and intervention of caput and cervix, Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology


Shalya Tantra



Agada Tantra



Bhuta Vidya







Science of greening or anti-aging



Science of birthrate

Around 15000 BC, Ayurveda was delineated into two distinguishable schools: Atreya – the school of Physicians and Dhanvantari – the school of Surgeons. This made Ayurveda a more consistently classified medical scientific discipline. Around 1000 BC, these two schools of idea led to the authorship of two major books on Ayurveda – Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita by the sage physicians Charaka and Susruta severally. The Susruta Samhita comprises the cognition about prosthetic surgery to replace limbs, decorative surgery, cesarean operations and even encephalon surgery. He is celebrated for his invention of decorative surgery on the olfactory organ or nose job. Around 500 AD, Vagbhatt compiled the 3rd major treatise on Ayurveda, called the Astanga Hridaya. This treatise compiled information refering to both the schools of idea in Ayurveda.


Harmonizing to Ayurveda, all the objects in the existence, including the human organic structure, are composed of five basic elements ( Panchamahabhutas ) – viz. Earth ( prithvi ) , H2O ( aap ) , fire ( tej ) , air ( Vayu ) , and ether ( aakash ) . When these elements are present in a balanced province, the individual is said to bask good wellness. The growing and development of the organic structure depends on its nutrition. Food, in bend, is composed of the five elements, which replenish or nourish the similar elements of the organic structure after the action of bio-fire ( Agni ) . Whether it is the structural tissues or the physiological wits, they are all a consequence of the assorted combinations and substitutions of the Panchamahabhutas.


Ayurveda attributes disease and upset conditions to an instability of the three chief wits in the organic structure, called doshas. These doshas are known as air current ( vata ) , gall ( pitta ) and emotionlessness ( kapha ) . These fluids pervade the whole microcosm of adult male. So long as these are in their normal status, the organic structure remains healthy. When there is any perturbation in their degrees, the organic structure suffers from upsets.

Good digestion requires the right proportion of the three wits. The normal status of the bowels indicates a predomination of kapha, loose bowels indicate pitta and irregularity indicates a preponderance of vata.

A combination of the five elements leads to formation of the Tridoshas or the three basic forces. These are present in every object found in this existence. By a combination of Earth and air, the air rule Vata is created ; Pitta is created from a combination of fire and H2O whereas synergism of Earth and H2O produces the H2O rule Kapha. Each one of us has a peculiar balance of doshas. Our organic structure ‘s ability to defy disease, and our mental disposition are linked to the doshas that predominate us.


Prana or the life force in our organic structure is said to flux through the seven chakras or psychic energy centres. This Prana energy is described as being of five types – Udana, Prana, Samana, Apana and Vyana. As per Ayurveda, the obstruction in the flow of this energy is responsible for the assorted diseases in worlds. Hence, the intervention processs consist of avoiding factors that trigger off an instability of constituents.

Ayurveda prescribes the usage of specific medical specialties, a suited diet, exercising and activity and specific Panchakarma procedures that aid to reconstruct the disturbed balance of the organic structure. All these facets of the intervention regimen are intended to rejuvenate organic structure mechanisms and reconstruct balance so as to construct wellness from within, therefore minimising future incidents of disease.

Panchakarma therapy

This is a manner of therapy by and large performed in three phases: the poorva karma, the pradhana karma and the paschata karma.

Poorvakarma is the first phase of this therapy and it involves the initial processs like the fixing the patient, medical specialties and equipments. The set of actions used in this can be of three types – Pachana ( digestion therapy ) , Snehana ( oleation therapy ) and Svedana ( perspiration therapy – initiation of sudating )

Pradhana karma is the following phase of therapy and this is where the drug is really administered. This includes assorted interventions like Vamana ( vomit ) , Virechana ( catharsis ) , Basti ( clyster ) , Nasya or Shirovirechana ( rhinal insufflation ) , Raktamokshana or Asravisruthi.

Paschata karma refers to the processs adopted after the pradhana karma. These are processs aimed at convalescence following the chief intervention like diet, medical specialties and alterations in the day-to-day modus operandi. It can be of three types – Samsarajana karma ( specific diet ) , Rasayanadi karma ( peculiar drugs ) and Shamana prayoga ( drugs to handle disease after its riddance ) .

Today, when people are recognizing the booby traps of modern allopathic systems of medical specialty, Ayurveda is in the head of medical research. Using mentions from ancient texts, research workers are now seeking to insulate the active components present in peculiar herbs to happen admiration remedies for incurable diseases like malignant neoplastic disease and AIDS.


The Unani system of medical specialty originated in Greece. The Grecian philosopher-physician Hippocrates ( 460 – 377 BC ) laid the scientific foundation of this system. After Hippocrates, many other Grecian bookmans contributed to the cognition base of this system. Galen, Rhazes and Avicenna were some of the bookmans who helped construct up this system of medical specialty.

The Arabs introduced this system to India ; the Mughal Emperors provided province support to this system. Hakim Ajmal Khan ( 1868 – 1927 ) was an active and scholarly practician of this system of medical specialty.


The Unani system, based on the theory of Hippocrates, considers that the balance of “ Arkhan ” ( elements ) , “ Akhlat ” ( wit ) and “ Mijaz ” ( disposition ) are the premier necessities for a healthy head and organic structure.

As per this system, there are four wits in the human organic structure called as – “ Dum ” ( blood ) , “ Bhalgam ” ( emotionlessness ) , “ Safra ” ( xanthous gall ) and “ Soada ” ( black gall ) . There is a specific proportion of all these wits in each single – this is responsible for make up one’s minding his province of wellness. The right humoral balance is maintained by an intrinsic power of self-preservation called the “ Quwut – e- Modabira ” . Any weakening of this power leads to an instability in the humoral fundamental law, which, in bend, leads to disease. Therefore, the intervention in Unani system of medical specialty consists of utilizing substances that guarantee the organic structure regains this power and humoral fundamental law is restored to its province of balance.

The Unani system prescribed six indispensable demands to forestall diseases. These, known as the “ Asbabe – Sita – Zarooriya ” , are air, nutrient and drinks, bodily motions and response, slumber and wakefulness, elimination and keeping.


The Unani system relies on simple diet control in the initial phases of unsophisticated unwellnesss, followed by disposal of a individual drug. If this intervention fails, a compound readying is prescribed. These intervention systems are known as “ Ilajbit-tadbeer ” ( regimental therapy ) , “ Ilabjit-ghiza ” ( dietotherapy ) , “ Ilabjit-dawa ” ( pharmacotherapy ) and “ jarahat ” ( surgery ) .

Pharmacotherapy involves the usage of natural herbal drugs ; animate being and mineral drugs are besides used. Procedures like perspiration, phlebotomy, cupping, cautery, Turkish bath, purging and vomit are a portion of regimental therapy. Dietotherapy includes the intervention of complaints by modulating the measure and quality of nutrient or by doing usage of specific diets.


One of the alone features of this system is the mode in which it makes usage of the pulsation ( Nabz ) to name conditions. Study of the piss ( Baul ) and stools ( Baraz ) are besides used in diagnosing of diseases.


The word ‘Siddha ‘ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Siddhi ‘ which refers to a end to be achieved. Great bookmans and physicians with huge cognition of chemical science and medical specialty were known as Siddhas or Siddhars in Tamil Nadu. They were the propounders of one of the oldest systems of medical specialty practiced in India. As per traditional Siddha literature, 18 such Siddhas were revered for their cognition of medical specialty and therapy. The Siddha system of medical specialty chiefly relies upon the usage of minerals and metals in handling assorted complaints. Siddha, like Ayurveda, propounds a strong connexion between the wellness of the organic structure and the psyche. The intervention regimens, hence, are aimed at mending both entities.


Like Ayurveda, the Siddha system besides believes in the system of the three wits – Vata, Pitta and Kapha. A balance of these ensures the good wellness of an person.


The diagnosis physician relies upon inputs from eight facets of the patient ‘s organic structure – general visual aspect, the lingua, the voice, the eyes, the tegument, the pulsation, piss and stools. All facets, except for the voice, are judged by their coloring material. Voice is judged on the footing of pitch.

One of the major characteristics that distinguish Siddha from Ayurveda is the accent on mineral medical specialties in intervention of upsets. Alchemy is a scientific discipline that trades with change overing lower metals into gold or other signifier. Siddhars used the rules of chemistry to fix mineral drugs. The logic behind the usage of metals is that saving of the organic structure is possible merely through the usage of stuffs that do non undergo decomposition. Another possible ground for the predomination of metals is the fact that these were more readily available than herbs and hence, doctors preferred to utilize them.

Medicines used in the Siddha system of medical specialty are categorized into three categories as Thavaram ( herbal beginning ) , Thathu ( metal and mineral beginning ) and Jangamam ( carnal beginning ) . All these drugs are farther classified based on five belongingss known as Suvai ( gustatory sensation ) , Gunam ( character ) , Veerya ( authority ) , Pirivu ( category ) and Mahimai ( action ) .


The word “ Homeopathy ” is derived from two Grecian words – Homois intending “ similar ” and pathos intending “ enduring ” . Thus, Homeopathy refers to the procedure of handling diseases with redresss that can bring forth symptoms similar to the disease when taken by healthy people. The footing of this system of medical specialty is the natural jurisprudence of mending called “ Similia Similibus Curentur ” , which translates into “ like are cured by likes ” .

It was Dr. Samuel Hahnemann ( 1755-1843 ) who gave Homeopathy a scientific footing in the early nineteenth century. During the class of his experiments with Cinchona bark, Hahnemann observed an interesting phenomenon. The effects produced when he ingested Cinchona bark were about the same as those experienced by people enduring from malaria. This led him to reason that similarity is the footing of the remedy effected by herbs and that merely a drug that produces the symptoms in healthy individuals can bring around the disease in an stricken person. By carry oning research on a assortment of drugs, Hahnemann arrived at the jurisprudence of similars. As per the basic rules of Homeopathy, there is a critical force in the human organic structure that ‘s responsible for the care of wellness. When a drug is administered, it produces unreal symptoms that activate this critical force to extinguish the original disease symptoms. These unreal symptoms cease when dosing with the drug is stopped.


The system of Homeopathy is based on a few Torahs:

Law of Similars: It is besides called the Law of Cure. This jurisprudence demonstrates that the selected redress is able to bring forth a scope of symptoms in a healthy individual similar to that observed in the patient, therefore taking to the rule of similar remedies like.

Law of Single redress: This jurisprudence directs the practician to administrate merely one redress at a clip. The drug chosen should turn to the prevailing symptom composite of the ill individual. Most of the redresss used in Homeopathy were proved active when taken singly. A combination of two or more redresss is hence considered as a new redress, necessitating farther research before it can be administered to patients. Besides, this is one of the lone ways to be able to place the healing component accurately. Homeopathy besides believes that although co-administration of redresss may hold a interactive consequence, the chance of inauspicious effects can non be ruled out wholly.

Law of Minimum dosage: The redress is to be administered at dosage degrees that are so little as to forestall a toxic consequence on the body.The rule of dilutions ( or “ jurisprudence of lower limit dosage ” ) states that the lower the dosage of the medicine, the greater its effectivity. In Homeopathy, there is a bit-by-bit dilution of drugs, with vigorous agitating between dilutions. This procedure is called as “ potentization ” . It is considered that this procedure transfers some of the initial energy from the get downing substance to the concluding diluted signifier that is administered to the patient. One of the common ailments of modern scientists against this system arises based on this rule. They contend that the existent concentration of active ingredients in the diluted redress is so little as to be negligible, and inquiry the footing of the remedy. Homeopathic practicians nevertheless, believe that even the most dilute of redresss retain an imprint of the original drug. This theory, called as the “ memory of H2O ” believes this imprint stimulates the self-healing belongingss of the organic structure.

Preparation of redresss

The drugs used in homeopathic intervention are called redresss.

These are prepared by a procedure of multiple dilutions, called as potentisation. It is considered that including a greater figure of phases of potentisation increases the curative potency of the redress. Two methods are used to fix these redresss – multiple vial method and individual vial method. The initial solution from which dilution is begun is known as the female parent tincture. Compounds that are indissoluble are rendered soluble through procedures like trituration, crunching and blending with lactose pulverization.

Choice of the authority of the merchandise to be administered to the patient depends on assorted factors such as the nature of the disease status ( acute/chronic, physical/emotional ) . Besides this, the verve of the patient along with the grade of assurance the prescriber has sing a peculiar remedy are besides taken into history before ordering a redress. If there are multiple symptoms presented in the patient, the remedy returns along the way from most of import to less of import variety meats, from within the organic structure to outside and from top to bottom. The remedy is aimed at doing a remotion of symptoms in rearward chronological order of their visual aspect.


Traditional Chinese medical specialty believes in the being of two elements called Yin and Yang whose proportions are in a delicate province of balance at any given point of clip. Perturbation of this balance is the beginning of disease. All organic structure organs contain an component of Yin and Yang, although one organ may be more Yang in its nature, whilst the other is more Yin. Hence, this system believes that rectifying the instability is the key to bring arounding an complaint.

Traditional Chinese medical specialty believes that the human organic structure is capable of set uping its ain remedies, provided it is needled or pushed at peculiar topographic points. This is the theory behind techniques like Acupuncture and Acupressure.

This system of medical specialty proposes the being of a series of channels that carry and distribute critical energy called as Qi, throughout the organic structure. If there ‘s any obstructor to the flow of Qi through these channels, it can take to disease. There can be occasions when strain can damage the really unity of the channels. Such diseases are known as ‘Bi ‘ or hurting. Every organ of the organic structure is represented by one specific channel. Therefore, it follows that using force per unit area or acerate leafs on the stylostixis points on the channel stand foring a specific organ can bring around the upsets related to that organ selectively.


Aromatherapy is a the usage of volatile stuffs obtained from works beginnings. These volatile stuffs are besides called as indispensable oils due to the kernel they contain. Most of these volatile oils are strongly antimicrobic in action. Recent progresss prove their efficaciousness in the direction of hurting and nervous symptoms like anxiousness and depression. The effects of indispensable oils are explained by two mechanisms. The first is the existent curative consequence of the oil. The 2nd is in footings of the influence that olfactory property is found to exercise on the limbic system of the encephalon through the olfactory system.

Action of oil



Clove oil, tea tree oil, cinnamon oil and rosemary oil


Sandalwood oil, Mentha piperita oil, ginger oil and lemon grass oil


Lavender oil, tea tree oil, split oil and retem oil


Eucalyptus oil, bay foliage oil, split oil and cinnamon oil


Ayurveda is the cognition of life, based on the construct of Panchamahbhutas and Tridoshas, with importance attached to wellness of the organic structure, head and spirit.

Unani postulates that the balance of Arkhan, Akhlat and Mijaz are the premier necessities for a healthy head and organic structure. It besides believes in the being of a self-preservative power, which strives to reconstruct any perturbation within the organic structure.

Siddha, which is popular in Tamil Nadu, is really similar to Ayurveda, except for the emphasis on mineral drugs.

Homeopathy is based on the rules of similar remedies like, individual redresss and minimal dose.

Traditiona Chinese System of Medicine is based on the co-existence of two elements called Yin and Yang, which need to be in a province of balance to guarantee good wellness. It makes usage of stylostixis and G-Jo along with herbs to take obstructions in the flow of energy through channels in the organic structure.

Aromatherapy makes usage of indispensable oils from works beginnings to hold specific antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. It is besides being studied for its influence on the emotional well being of patients.


Give the rules of Ayurveda and Siddha system of medical specialty.

Explain the rules involved in Chinese and Unani system of medical specialty.

What are the basic rules of Siddha?

Explain the different interventions in Ayurveda.

What is the significance of Unani Tibb system.

Explain the constructs of homoeopathy.

What is Qi in Chinese medical specialty?

What are the different divisions of Ayurveda?

Explain the rules of Aromatherapy.

What are the manners of application of indispensable oils in aromatherapy?


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