Biography of Carl Ransom RogersCarl Rogers was an influential psychologist and psychotherapist who had studied in his field for decades. He was born on January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, and was the fourth child of a middle-class family. His siblings were his two older brothers, Lester and Ross, his two younger brothers, Walter Jr. and John, and his older sister Margaret. His mother was named Julia, and was a housewife, a devout Christian, and was strict with the upbringing of her children. Carl’s father was named Walter, and he was a respected civil engineer in Chicago, and was also Christian. During his childhood, Carl was relatively close with his mother. She considered him to be a precious child, as he would later prove to be gifted. Before he was the age of four, Carl was already successful at reading due to being taught by his mother. Carl had even skipped the first grade entirely because of this. Though early on, he was a sensitive child and was also a daydreamer. Carl was considered to be a loner while he was young, as he had no close friends. However, this would seem to be due to the fact that Carl was given responsibility for the hens and egg-gathering at their home. His future wife Helen Elliot, who met him in grade school, remembered him as reluctantly heading home for school to sell eggs while the other children played (Krapp, 2005).When Carl had turned 12, his father had decided to fulfill his dreams and become a full-fledged farmer, buying 300 acres in a rural community called Glen Ellyn. Although actually residing in an estate, Carl was given the task of doing chores around the farm, all the while attending school. Carl would end up spending his teenage years on the farm, and would develop the work ethic, independence, and self-discipline that would characterize the rest of his life (Krapp). In the year 1919, Carl had graduated from high school. In the fall of that year, he attended the University of Wisconsin to major in agriculture, and this would spark change in Carl. As he was away from his home, he grew undecided as to the life ahead of him. He was passing his classes exceptionally well, but then grew weary of an agricultural future. So he then took part in the YMCA and other activities, encouraging young people to preach the gospel all over the world (Krapp). Although he had begun anew in college, Carl was still uncertain about becoming a minister.During his time at the university, Carl had connected back to Helen, who was also attending the school. The two had begun a relationship, and kept it until Helen had to transfer to a different school. Though they both would try and see each other as much as possible. Helen would then convince Carl to isolate himself from the religious views taught to him. He learned to dance and play cards; he joined a fraternity and attended college parties (Krapp), which had upset his parents.In the year 1921, Carl was one of ten selected to be youth delegates at the WSCF conference, which would be held in Beijing. One major aspect of this is that due to Carl believing that he was only chosen because his parents could afford to pay for his trip, so Carl could never see himself in a positive light such as actually achieving his own place in the trip. The leaders involved in the trip have denied Carl’s theory with their decision being based on his intelligence and commitment. In February of 1922, shortly before leaving to Beijing, Carl had proposed to Helen, though she had told him to wait for her decision.The conference in Beijing had only lasted a week, though Carl would also be taken to the nations of Japan, Korea, and the Philippines, with an overall span of six months. During that time, Carl had learned and invented new philosophies that would contribute to his studies. While in Asia, he would see first-hand the suffering of poor and exploited people, and the similarity of all nature. He would note that silk “lost considerable of its luster” after seeing the child labor that produced it (Krapp). The time spent and experience gained in his Asia trip would influence his future work, including his psychological theories, as he had seen the suffering of the people in his eyes. In 1922, Carl had shown his ability of creative writing, with an article about his experience entitled An Experiment in Christian Internationalism, which Rogers (1922) would state “The realization of those years hung like a dark curtain behind the conference, as men and women from all over the world, many of whom had been on opposite sides of the battle front, gathered to build up again the ties of friendship between the nations, and work together for the bringing in of a kingdom in which there shall be no war” (p. 2). Carl was explaining how his influences inspired his concern, and how the conference was bringing their plight to the light. When he returned from his trip, Carl’s relationship with his family would never be the same. He had begun to doubt the religious teachings taught to him by his family. Nevertheless, he still returned to the UW to major to become a minister. After returning, he would start a small business of importing Eastern goods to the United States of America to sell. He had part-time in Christian youth counseling as well. Carl also took a course in psychology at UW. Reading the work of William James, he believed it to be boring. On his first psychology course, Carl would argue with his professor about if dogs could reason. Roger states, “I was quite able to prove to my own satisfaction that my dog Shep was definitely able to solve difficult problems by reasoning” (Krapp). Carl stayed at the school, continuing his education through his junior and senior years. He then applied to the Union Theological Seminary in New York, and was accepted after graduating the UW. And on August 28, 1924, Carl and Helen married and honeymooned in New york City.The summer of 1924 consisted of Carl becoming a pastor of a church in East Dorset, to which he and Helen had liked. While in East Dorset, he had discovered an underlying problem within the community, describing the likes of alcoholics and psychotics. This kind of exposure brought Carl to further himself in psychology. This would inspire him to attend to Columbia University in the future. Though in 1926 while Carl was still at the Union Seminary, there was a course named “Why Am I Entering the Ministry?” and he quickly signed up for it. It was during this time that Carl had developed a peptic ulcer, which he thought was caused by a genetic example of his family repressing anger and stress.On March 17, 1926, Carl and his wife Helen had their first child, to which they named him David. Before that year would end, Carl would then transfer to Columbia University. He would attend this school to work for his MA (which he would receive in 1928), and a PhD (in 1931), all the while tending to his family. In 1928, Carl took part in clinic work at the Rochester Child Study Center, as part of the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. In the summer of 1928, Carl and his family moved to Rochester. In the fall, Helen gave birth to Natalie, their second child. Carl was still a clinician, but would rise in the ranks over time. He would advance to the position of director of the Rochester society and their clinic. Carl would accustom himself with the knowledge and psychotherapeutic techniques of others. Carl would be influenced by the work of Otto Rank, who believed that people were inevitably caught in a battle between their “will to heal” and “will to illness” (Krapp). With this, Carl believed that therapy was created to help patients accept who they really are.While attending Columbia University and keeping up with family life, Carl also continued to write. Carl would write and publish multiple articles, all with a psychological or psychotherapeutic theme, or clinical case work as a basis. The Clinical Management of the Problem Child, was Carl’s first written and published book, written in 1939. This book would contain most of his theories and studies of what he would introduce to the field of psychology later in life.In the year 1940, Carl was offered a full-time job as a professor at Ohio State University. He would stay at the university until the University of Chicago offered him joint positions teaching directly at their university in 1945. During this time period, Carl grew ever so frustrated over the psychologists that followed Sigmund Freud’s teachings. The people Freudians called “patients” were more and more seen as “clients” by Rogers (Krapp). Carl believed that these people were not ill as in a medical way, but rather mentally wounded in some way. So in retaliation, in 1942, he published Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice. This book was highly revered in the psychotherapeutic world, as this is the first work in the field of psychology that referred to people as clients rather than patients. During World War II, and even after, Carl was involved in the United Service Organization. He helped soldiers returning from the war cope with the psychological damage, and put the knowledge of the experiences he had into his 1946 book entitled Counseling with Returned Servicemen. And in 1944, Carl was elected as president to the American Association for Applied Psychology, to which he had helped found.At the University of Chicago, Carl would develop almost all of the research that would make him renowned in his field. He was influenced by his long-time desire to observe and improve upon standard forms of mental treatment. This led to him becoming the counseling center’s first executive secretary and managed to obtain grant funding for the research he had so strongly advocated for nearly a decade (Krapp).Still in 1945, Carl was then elected president of the American Psychology Association, giving him even more credibility and recognition with psychologists. Though in reality, Carl himself did almost none of the research, which was given to his graduate students. Carl was responsible for obtaining the funds and providing ideas, studies, and encouraging his pupils. He wasn’t interested in personal recognition for his feats, rather in finishing the task at hand, he saw himself as a facilitator. His fame with students grew immensely as he worked at the university, with many students from around the world gathering to attend his classes. Though being given the least popular time to teach on the schedule, his classes would always be overpacked with students desperate to listen to him.While teaching at Chicago in 1951, Carl wrote one of his most appreciated works entitled Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. In his book, Carl details information and research on his idea of the personality theory. According to Rogers (1959), we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image (Carl Rogers, 2014).