Bioinformatics is the combination of computers, software tools, and databases to address and solve biological questions and enhance biological research. It can also be defined as the science and technology of learning, managing, and processing biological information. The use of bioinformatics approaches are often used for major actions with an outcome of large data sets. Two large uses for bioinformatics includes genomic and proteomics. Genomics is the study of genomes which are the complete set of DNA sequences that are the codes for the hereditary biological materials used to pass down generations. Proteomics is the study of complete sets of proteins or proteomic, and bioinformatics is used in both to better understand biological systems. Modern scientists refer to bioinformatics as system biology which is a way to tackle upcoming and complex biological questions. System biology involves the two large uses for bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics and bioinformatics information to reveal a whole system view of a biological substance. Any system where the information can be shown digitally has the potential to use bioinformatics. Bioinformatics can be traced back to 1968 when Margaret Dayhoff with her collection of protein sequences. An early use for bioinformatic was actually using it to search through the program (database) to find similar sequences and the origins of a viral gene. This gave scientists insight on how some viral sequences causes cancer. Since then, the field of bioinformatics has significantly increased and so has the development of DNA sequencing technology that has actually revolutionized the field of bioinformatics. The application of bioinformatics to genomics could be a very helpful tool for the discovery of new drugs, and during the 1990’s, pharmaceutical companies as well as biotech companies became convinced that they would be able to enhance and speed up drug discovery by taking advantage of data from the Human Genome Project which was an international scientific research effort to identify the estimated 30, 000 genes in a human DNA. Vast majority of drugs are actually targeting proteins. Over the past decades, the quantity and quality of biological information has skyrocketed because of advancements made in the fields of molecular biology and genomic technology. In August 2000, the GenBank repository of nucleic acid sequences held 8,214,000 entries and the SWISS-PROT database of protein sequences contained 88, 166. On average, these databases are doubling in size every 15 months. Bioinformatics is important because it helps with not only DNA research, but also can help with cancer research. Bioinformatics can help spot whether or not a gene turns on in a cancer cell or whether it turned on in a healthy cell which will enhance cancer research.Databases are commonly used in many laboratories as they are able to generate large amounts of data like DNA sequences, gene expression information, and three-dimensional molecular structure. The databases are most useful when designed to allow efficient storage, search, and analysis. One of the most important things for the bioinformatics scientists is to have a strong working relationship with the researchers using the databases and interpreting the information.Large commercial businesses such as pharmaceutical companies employ bioinformaticians to perform and maintain the large scale and complicated bioinformatic needs of these industries as explained in the history section. Since there is an ever-increasing aid for constant input from skilled bioinformaticians, most biomedical laboratories may soon have their own personal bioinformatician. The individual researcher, although, would certainly need external bioinformatic advice for any complex analysis.The growth of bioinformatics has been a global investment, creating computer networks which have made easy access to biological data and enabled the development of software programs for effortless analysis. Multiple international projects aimed at providing gene and protein databases are available freely to the whole scientific community on the internet. Bioinformatics is usually studied at the graduate level. There are some bachelor degree programs that do also lead to this field such as bio-engineering, computer science, biology, and chemistry which sometimes offer a specialization in bioinformatics. Master’s degree program in bioinformatics can prepare graduates for applied research or consulting jobs, and PhD graduates can seek a range of reach jobs. If you do study bioinformatics courses can include molecular biology, statistics, computing and informatics, while more advanced courses can cover population genetics, molecular genomic, biological mathematical modelling, biostatistics, and computational neuroscience. These courses will most likely require laboratory work, research, an internship, and thesis.There is a bioinformatics program at leadhead university located in thunder bay that takes you right in the field of bioinformatics but with that being said, you need biology, chemistry, english, and advanced functions to get in, so it’s very competitive to get in. It is a four year program and you only dive deep into bioinformatics in the third year. The tuition for one year is $7,243.99 and residence costs of $8,270-$10,800 with no co-op options.There is another program at University of Toronto called computer science and bioinformatics/computational biology that gives you a hybrid of computer science, bioinformatics, which is perfect if you want to keep your studies in programming as well. To get into this program, you need just english and calculus and vectors but an minimum average of low 90s. The program is four years in length and for one year the tuition is $6,400 and the residence cost ranges from $8,300 – $14,000 with a co-op option.