Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

CDC for influenza which is hectic and

CDC
(Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention) USA and WHO monitor the disease throughout the world
and updates it on their website every week. (https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/index.htm). 

CDC estimates since 2010 ranged from 140,000 to 710,000 individuals were hospitalized
due to influenza.  The estimated Range of
deaths is 12,000 to 56,000. The levels of virus circulation in the U.S.
population are very high during flu season. United States —Ages of the patients who were hospitalized or had died between
April 2009 and April 10, 2010 were evaluated by CDC epidemiologic survey. The
following numbers of hospitalizations were estimated to have occurred in the
United States. (CDC)

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?0 to 17 years – 87,000 cases

?18 to 64 years – 160,000 cases

?65 years and older – 27,000 cases

?Total – 274,000 cases

Estimated number of deaths during the same period in USA.
(CDC)

?0 to 17 years – 1280 cases

?18 to 64 years – 9570 cases

?65 years and older – 1620 cases

?Total – 12,470 cases.

 

 

 

NIH
studies

Novel
influenza vaccine platforms for efficient production of vaccines are under
development by scientists. Against seasonal and pandemic influenza NIAID’s
Vaccine Research Center is developing vaccines based on DNA
or gene-based. These vaccines have been tested in clinical trials. A DNA vaccine contains a small, circular piece of DNA called a plasmid that includes genes that code
for proteins of a flu virus. When the vaccine is injected into the body, cells
read the genes and make virus proteins, which self-assemble into virus-like units.
The body then mounts an immune response to these units. (Novel Influenza Vaccine Designs by NIH)

Other platforms being
explored include peptide-based vaccines, virus-like
particle (VLP)-based vaccines, and vector-based vaccines, which use other
viruses as vectors, or carriers, to deliver segments of genetic material
derived from influenza virus.

New updates

Every year new vaccines are designed
for influenza which is hectic and laborious so new techniques without egg base are
used which are more effective and have short production time such as Mammalian cell line–based vaccines. These types of vaccines
maintain the structure of the antibody-combining sites on the hemagglutinin
antigen (HA) but it is difficult in egg base vaccines. HA may result in more
robust antibody responses due to preservation of combining site (Glezen WP, 2011) Responses of Mammalian cell line–based
vaccines may also induce broader immune system so better protection against
variant strains may be provided. Replication of influenza virus is better in
mammalian then eggs. In egg cells certain types do not replicate e.g. avian
H5N1 viruses.

Universal vaccines ; now a day’s scientists
are focused on developing a universal vaccine that would elicit protective
antibodies directed against conserved viral proteins (Dunkle LM, 2015) Universal vaccine would provide shield against drifting
influenza strains as well as against recently emerging pandemic strains (Impagliazzo,
2015).

The disease population

Background

Types
of influenza vaccines which currently available in market are trivalent or
quadrivalent (Grohskopf LA, 2016). The trivalent vaccine composed of one
influenza B virus antigen and two influenza A virus antigens. The quadrivalent
vaccine contains two influenza A antigens and two influenza B antigens and
available in two forms inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) and a live
attenuated vaccine in the United States. The United States Advisory Committee
on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends annual influenza vaccination for
all individuals six months of age and older (Grohskopf LA, 2016, CDC’s Advisory
Committee, 2010).

Highest rate of mutation, production of immune system
against new variants of Influenza virus trigger the production of vaccine to
match he circulating stain of virus, (Kilbourne ED, 2010)The production of
vaccine takes six moth from the selection of seed to final production, The
selection of antigens for vaccines are very difficult because it is decide in
advance very few time it mismatches and reduces the efficacy of vaccine. (Grohskopf
LA, 2016).

 The following
strains are recommended by WHO for seasonal influenza vaccines for the 2017
influenza season in the southern hemisphere (May to October). The
Recommendations for 2017 to 2018 influenza season in the northern hemisphere
(November to April) contain the following strains. (Kilbourne ED, 2010 &
WHO, 2006)

?A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus

?A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus

?B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus

?B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (included in the quadrivalent vaccines only)

The effect of influenza vaccine are more effective in those
individuals who are vaccinated in the current season or first time then the
individuals who were vaccinated last season and then in current season or
second time shown by several studies (Ohmit SE,2013). The risk of influenza
pneumonia decreased up to 57 percent (95% CI 32 to 73 percent) by vaccination.
Grijalva (CG, 2015)

Influenza A or B viruses
are the main caused of influenza a respiratory acute illness that occurs in
outbreaks and epidemics worldwide. The favorite season of influenza is winter
with lot of signs and symptoms of upper and/or lower respiratory
tract infection mainly with other indications of systemic illness like fever,
headache, myalgia, and weakness. Influenza is a self-limited infection in the
general population (uncomplicated influenza types) but influenza is associated
with high risk of morbidity and mortality in certain high-risk populations
(complicated types of influenza virus).

Population studies

Infants & Children:

Every year during a
typical influenza season the attack rate of influenza in children (

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