Presentation, Analysis and
Interpretation of Data
chapter presents analyse and interpretation of the data gathered on the lived
experiences of single mothers in raising their children. The data are presented
through themes that were aligned to answer the research interview guide. The
research interview guide and the emergent themes are used as a guide throughout
the study to explore the data particularly, to gain knowledge and understanding
of the lived experience of single mothers in raising their children.
participants faced many experiences being single mothers. In fact their experienced
gives them strength to conquer their fears in life as a single mothers in
raising their child/children furthermore, it also gives them courage to
continue in reaching their dreams and ambitions at the same time their
experienced gives them a lesson. These themes present the lived experiences of
single mothers in terms of economic, emotional and psychological aspect.
1 presents the responses of the participants regarding their lived experiences
in terms of economic, emotional and psychological aspect.
on the lived Experiences of Single Mothers in terms of Economic, Emotional and
1, 2, 3 and 7). “Sa financial lisud
gyud samot na
isa kay wala baya ang papa sa bata, pero ug naa
imung family nga mutabang sa imu murag okay okay . ”
terms of financial it’s difficult I shoulder the entire problem
the presence of the father, but with the help of my
I can manage better.
4 and 6) “Ang akong sweldo para lang sa among pang inadlaw- adlaw usahay
kulangon kay sa kadaghanon sa akong mga anak,
usahay di nako mahatag sa ilaha tanan tungod kay gamay lang ang akung sweldo.
salary was enough for our daily needs it could not
to buy all they want due to my low
(Participants 5 and 8) “dili gyud lalim grabe gyud ka lisud as
in,usahay magtrabaho ko nga wala sa huna-huna, mag sige kog kalipong,
(“It’s very hard” that sometimes I
work absent minded, I’m
Always feeling dizzy.
Participants 1, 2, 3 and 7 experienced
financial problems of being single mothers in raising their children, According
to Nidhi and Bharti (2009) financial
crisis was a standing situation with most of single parent families. It becomes
difficult in meeting the basic needs of children such as food, clothing, school
fees, maintaining the previous standard of living and meet personal expenses. The father of their child may provide
the basic need of their child/children. But most of the time the single mothers
parents were the ones supporting them financially.
4 and 6 said that in terms of financial it’s very hard for them to sustain
their needs, but they find ways especially when it comes to their daily needs
but sometimes their income was not enough that’s why they cannot give
everything for their children’s need.
Since they were many in the family and their income was enough for their
foods and shelter only.
Participants 5 and 8 stated that it was
difficult because they had no permanent jobs to sustain the daily needs of
their child. Most single mothers struggle
to care for their children. They have difficulties in looking for a job, and if
they have a job, the salary is very low that it could not even support for
their daily subsistence.
& McLanahan (1986) explained that mother-only families are more likely to
be poor because of the lower earning capacity of single mothers and the insufficient benefits provided by the
state, and the lack of child support provided from the non-residential father .
Susan, (n.d.) States that single mothers’
unemployment has been stated to be more than twice as much as married women, because
most single mothers had difficulty in finding jobs that were steady. It has
been noted that this high unemployment rate was troubling for families since
one fifth of all families with children were headed by working single mothers, and
families of single mothers considering both those who work and those who do
The U.S. Children in Single
Mother Families (2009) Claim that most single-mother families have limited
financial resources available to cover children’s education, child care, and
health care costs. Seven in 10 children
living with a single mother were poor or low income, compared to less than a
third (32 per cent) of children living in other types of families. While part
of the problem was fewer potential earners in female-headed families, many of
these families were also at a disadvantage because of problems collecting child
support payments from absent fathers.
of separation or divorce may lead to poor mental health to the single mothers (Afifi
et al., 2006). Separated and divorce mothers had increased chances of having
anxiety related disorders, and depression. As single mothers they cannot
control their emotions especially when their husband died or separated and when
they’re pregnant they were abandoned.
Kunz, (2014) Claim that single parents, usually mothers, lack financial support from a father and are often required to work longer hours
thereby making children receive less attention and guidance which hinder their social development as well as education
performance. Sometimes social development is the cause of parent’s separation
and less communication to their children. However it may give negative impact
to the child’s development physically, emotionally, and mentally.
Most of the participants
experienced emotional or psychological stress in raising their children alone.
They expressed how they felt when their children get sick or may be confined to
the hospital without the assistance of the biological father. They don’t know
what to do or where to go when they needed help.
It was very stressful for them mentally
because this was the big responsibility for them to fulfill the desire of their
children when it comes to time and care, because of the reason that they worked
hard to sustain their everyday needs that’s why they cannot give a fully
attention to guide the behavior of their child/children.
Furthermost, the very first
problem experienced by the single mothers was financial and it give them
worries to what they’re going to do when there were emergencies in the family.
It was hard for them to meet the needs when they’re lacked of money and it
might be the start of their struggles on how to find ways when they have an
emergency happened to their child/children, especially if their ex-partner was
not around to support them.
Single Mothers on Coping Mechanism in raising their Children
1, 2 and 3″mag side-line side-line ko ug mga pang sale
mga perfume avon kalingawan ra bitaw negosyo pud gamay
mag deal ko ug jansport nga
mga bag pero deli gyud totally
(“I have many side-lines in selling and
dealing some products that
can give me a small income to sustain the needs of my
4 and 5 “Mangitag trabaho para mahatag ilang
sa pamatasan istoryahan lang sila sa
(“I’ll find a job to give the needs of my children, in
Behaviour I teach them to do well”.)
6 ”Bisan wala koy bana akong gihimong insperasyon
anak sa adlaw-adlawong buluhaton sa uma bisan sa kainit
adlaw, akong gi antos para lang mahatag nako ang tanan.”
(“In the absence of my husband, i considered my child as my
inspiration in my day-to-day despite being tired in
The heat. I just wanted to give everything”)
7 and 8 (“In terms sa pagkaon mahatag man naku sa
maka kaon man me ka 3 sa is aka adlaw. Sa karon naa man
balay maayo man among kahimtang sa akung anak kay dako-
naman siya.ug scholar pud siya sa 4p’s.”
(“In terms of food I can provide foods for
her, we can eat three
times a day and as of now we have our own shelter for
us to live
And my child was also a scholar of 4ps.”)
1, 2 and 3 similarly answered in regards to the needs of their child. Their
parents were always there to provide their needs and they also had many
side-lines to fulfil their responsibility even though their baby was
young. According to them they cannot
stand by their own because they don’t have a permanent work. Their situation changed
everything, even the clothes of their baby were given by their parents.
three participants expressed their experiences about being single mothers that
it’s not easy to raise a child without a family guide and presence, at the same
time the presence of their parents and guidance were always there. They are
dependent on the sustenance of their very own parents.
4 and 5 similarly answered the coping mechanism of finding a job for the needs
of their children. In terms of their attitude, they try to give their best to
teach their child/children good manner. However most of the participants had a common
problem and that is financial.
single mothers were prone to financial problems because they’re the ones providing
the needs of their children such as food and clothing and school fees. Every
single day a single mother’s struggles is to find a better job because they always
think of the security of their children. The compounding economic difficulties
of lone parenthood result in a high probability that a single-parent family
were a poor one. According to (Orthner, Sanpei and Williams, 2004) poverty
rates among the lone parent families often higher than those in general
6 expressed her hard experiences in handling the behaviours of her children. Though
it is hard for her to recall the past that they had. Still she pursues or continues
to become stronger. She has different strategies in raising her children in
terms of education and proper health care. The respondent says that her child
was one of the best inspirations to carry the entire problem she was faced.
the single mother does not have definite statement in their coping list. But it
doesn’t differ by family status for instance the single mother vs. partnered
and for the housing status is homeless vs. housed, in Samuels-Dennis (1991).
7 and 8 similarly answered the question about being single mothers. The participant
stated that she never felt bothered about their supply like foods and milk of her
daughter because all the expenses of her daughter were shouldered by her
parents. But most of the time she asked financial support from her ex-partner. She
also received a support from the government to sustain the day-to-day living,
in every 3 months they receive a certain amount. Nelson
(1990), cited in Waruesporn, (2011) argues that family income has effects on a
single-mother’s life, which may diminish the emotional well-being of parents
and have negative effects on children’s self-esteem and behavior in school.
each participant has numerous problems in terms of economic but still they
always find ways to give a better and a pleasant life to their children.
Moreover, they always treasure each time they had in finding jobs and any
side-lines. Even sometimes they feel tired but they always think that their sacrifice
was for their children’s good.
some of the participants say that for the education of their children they were
not yet bothered because their children are too young and they focus only on
the primary needs like clothes and foods while they are growing up. However,
each of the participants has various tactics and strategies to cope up with the
behaviours of their children by teaching them on how to take care of themselves
independently, to be responsible children in the family also by teaching them
to respect others and the community. Most of the participants are trying their
very best in disciplining their children. They also teach religious matters for
them to be God fearing. Though sometimes they fail but they always abide them.