Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Chapter beginning teachers. This study aims to

Chapter 2

Review of
Related Literature

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     This chapter discusses the related studies
about the updated standards framework for the beginning teachers. This study
aims to identify the level of competence of the pre-service teachers of Centro
Escolar University. The researchers intent to provide suggestions for the
enhancement of the teacher education curriculum of the institution.

     The contents include the importance of
standards framework for the teaching profession. It highlights the important
qualities of Filipino teachers that needs to be acquired for effective teaching.
Also, the transition of the current standards for teachers is explained; from
the National Competency-Based Standards Framework (NCBTS) to the Philippine
Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST).


Teacher Competency: Importance of
Standards Framework for Teachers

framework for professional practice has been established to almost all
professions. These set of standards identify the skills of practice of
professionals whether they are novice or advanced. Likewise, a framework for
teaching is not limited only to teacher who are interested in improving their
practice but also to the community. It shows that teachers are also
professionals who needs to have appropriate characteristics to have a quality
of practice.

     The standards framework for teachers can be
used in a variety of purposes. It can be a guideline for a new teacher in the
field as well as enhancing the skills of the tenured teachers. Beginning
teachers are concerned with developing the mastery of their own teaching
practices and are apprehensive to their “day-to-day survival” as described by
Danielson (2007). On the other hand, expert teachers are interested in
improving their effectiveness or help in the transfer of knowledge with other
professionals of the lower degree.

standard from Department of Education of England describes the key ideas that
is focused in professional development. One of the importance in implementing
teacher standards is that it should have a focus on improving and evaluating
student outcomes, hence, professional development involves the impact of the
teacher to his/her learners. Second, professional development should include
collaboration and expert challenge, and the designed programs should be
constant over time. The development wouldn’t be effective if it is not well
practiced by the teacher. According to Weston (2016), it is required that
educational institutions should prioritize the professional development of
their teachers.

     A set of competency standards have been
established and fulfilled in different parts of Southeast Asia, including the
national teacher standards in the Philippines. According to the
SEAMEO-InnoTech, the development of teaching competency standards is conducted
by the reviews of the best practices from different countries particularly with
developed economies, which has a positive effect to progression of the
educational needs.

     According to the study done to the
Southeast Asian teachers, the SEAMEO-InnoTech (2010) listed the general area of
competencies that were identifies through a series of workshops. The teacher
must: facilitate the development of learner’s life and career skills, create a
conducive learning environment, facilitating learning, prepare appropriate
lesson plans in line with the school vision and mission, develop higher order
thinking skills, utilize teaching and learning resources, enhance ethical and
moral values, assessing and evaluating learner performance, engage in
professional development, network with stakeholders especially with parents,
and most importantly to manage students’ welfare and other tasks.


Qualities of Teachers in the

Teacher Education Council describes the qualities that a Filipino teacher
should acquire in the latest standards framework. The teacher’s mastery of
knowledge in the different learning areas. An effective teacher is a proficient
communicator in both Mother Tongue, Filipino and English language. Through
this, the teacher must exhibit excellence in the use of teaching strategies and
promoting high-quality learning. In addition, teachers must interact with the
national and local curriculum requirements for their professional development.

to Nolasco, Ricardo (2017), the “boringly normal” underperformance of Filipino
students in national and international tests can only mean one thing:  Many teachers have not mastered the content
of instruction. Results of numerous assessments administered to Filipino
teachers over the past thirty years have unequivocally shown this to be the
case. Benchmarking studies during the past few years paint the same gloomy
picture of the ill-prepared Filipino teacher.

2012, close to 120,000 Grade 1 and 2 teachers all over the country took the
Test of English Proficiency for Teachers (TEPT) and the Process Skills Test
(PST) in Science and Mathematics. Only 2% of teachers were able to attain the
high level (76-100 mean percentage scores, or MPS) in the English tests while a
lower 1% were able to reach this level in science and math. Most of the
teachers scored 62% in science and math and 50% in English—got scores ranging
from 26% to 50%. The lack of cognitive language abilities and academic
proficiency among Filipino teachers painfully illustrates the utter failure of
teacher education institutions, the Commission on Higher Education and the
Department of Education in addressing the critical issues related to teacher

By the use of an updated teacher standards,
teachers will be well informed in what professional attributes they need to
possess in order to be quality professionals. Teacher education institutions
can develop a pre-service curriculum that is: “outcome-based, compliant with
the K-12 curriculum and linked to teacher standards.”. According to Research
Center for Teacher Quality (RCTQ), most teacher-education institutions are not
preparing pre-service teachers to meet the quality standard for a beginning teacher.
In order to improve qualities of the teachers in the Philippines, we must focus
improving our pre-service teachers to ensure the progress of education here in
the Philippines.


Continuous Enhancement of
Professional Skills Leads to Quality Standards to Achieve

Philippines is characterised by its differing social approaches and aptitudes
having previously being colonised by the Spaniards, Americans and the Japanese.
To address these differences has required reforms in the education system
through changes in teacher training curriculum and the infrastructure,
increasing educational opportunities and opening up more opportunities for
university place (Guzman 2003). Continuous efforts have been put in place to
upgrade the quality and competence of the teachers in the Philippines. These
efforts have looked at improving the teacher training programs; improving the
welfare of teachers; and providing more opportunities for professional growth
through various in-service teacher education programs (Guzman 2003).

to Teresita U. Quirino (2007), A teacher must have room for professional
growth, go for advance studies like finishing masteral and doctoral degrees;
attend seminars and in-house training; read dailies and international
publications; and must be computer literate. In order for the teachers to be
successful and competent, teachers need to be knowledgeable and they should
have the mastery of the content of the subject/s. Teachers must present it with
such creativity by the use of visual aids and educational technologies in order
to make learning more effective.

to Gloria G. Salandanan (2007), All professionals must continue to progress.
Growth is measured in terms of positive changes such as progress in knowledge
assimilation and pedagogical skills development. Teachers have vast
opportunities to improve their professional skills. Teachers can learn the best
practices from their colleagues. Teachers can do on-the-spot observations and a
two-way exchange of new procedures and teaching techniques. Through this,
teachers will gain information and teaching tips in other’s feedback which they
can share to each other and will improve their professional skills. Teachers
can identify their strength and weaknesses which gives them rooms for

should take steps to become knowledgeable in her profession. First, teachers
must have a high degree of motivation to keep them competent and successful. Teachers
can improve themselves through reading. 
They can read books on particular subject specialization which they will
be updated on the content of the subject they are teaching. We all know that
information and new discoveries and inventions are spreading with rapid
movement because of the technologies that are emerging in our world. We must
cope with the changes of the world. It’s not only information changes but the
students in our schools really varies, we now have millennial students, that’s
why we must read books about new teaching methods  and strategies that will cope to the
diversity  of the learners.

can also be successful at the same time competent if they will give some time
to learn new skills in their profession. They can do seminar-workshops to
update and enhance curriculum materials. Teachers must be recommended to attend
regularly-scheduled faculty assemblies which they can brainstorm to gain new
developments in their professional skills as well as on-going school and
community projects of the school.


Background of the National
Competency-Based Teaching Standards (NCBTS)

The current teacher competency
standards for teachers are a product of the Teacher Education Council (TEC),
the Department of Education (DepEd), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED),
and the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC).

The National Competency-Based Teaching
Standards has been adopted and implemented in the DepEd Order No. 32 s. 2009.
The document states the policies and guidelines directed for all teachers. It
also provide a self-assessment tool that help teachers determine their mastery
of skills and the areas that needs improvement.

    The NCBTS is an
integrated theoretical framework that defines the different dimensions of
effective teaching, where effective teaching means being able to help all types
of students learn the different learning goals in the curriculum (DepEd, 2009).
Teachers, administrators, school personnel and all professionals in the field
of education shall refer to the NCBTS if they show interest in improving their
teaching strategies. Likewise, teacher education institutions use the NCBTS as
a basis in designing and enabling curriculum. Concurrently, the NCBTS can also
be used by organizations and agencies in formulating interventions for teachers
who are already in the field.

    It sets performance
indicators classified in domains and strands that lead the professional
development. A domain is defined as a distinctive sphere of the
teaching-learning process, and is also a well-defined arena for demonstrating
positive teacher practices (DepEd, 2009). Each domain outlines a specific
principle of teaching that is related to enhanced student learning.

seven domains are: (1) social regard for learning, (2) learning environment, (3)
diversity of learners, (4) curriculum, (5) planning, assessing, and reporting,
(6) community linkages, and (7) personal growth and development. The domains
are specifically designed according to the core values of Filipino teachers and
on the principles of teaching.

     Teachers can use the NCBTS accordingly as a
guide to reflect on their current teaching practices. It is an essential part
of the teacher to rethink the strategies that he/she uses whether it aids the
students in attaining the appropriate learning outcomes. Hence, the standards
can be used as a self-assessment tool for professional development.

Teachers use the NCBTS as a basis for constructing
new teaching practices that will be appropriately implemented in different
classroom settings. The set of standards is also used for planning for
professional development goals. As part of the teaching career, an essential
part is the progression of skills that are made by each professional. It is
then obliged to undergo development of self-competence. The NCBTS is a form of
language to all teachers that is used in communicating with the needs of
different aspects in education. Teacher to teacher comply with the set of


National Adoption and
Implementation of the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST)

K to 12 curriculum caused the change in the teacher quality requirements in the
Philippines. It affected how the teachers work in the classroom thus it
supports development of the guidelines in the teaching and learning process.

to the Department of Education, the importance of the professional standards is
the continuation of the professional development and the advancement of
teachers based on the principle of lifelong learning. Hence, enhancing teacher
quality becomes of utmost importance for long term and sustainable nation
building. The Philippine professional standards for teachers shall be used as a
basis for all learning and development programs for teacher to ensure that
teachers are properly equipped to effectively implement the K-12 program.

Philippine professional standards for teachers aims to: 1) set out clear
expectations of teachers along well-defined career stages of professional
development from beginning to distinguished practice; 2) engage teachers to
actively embrace a continuing effort in attaining proficiency; and 3) apply
uniform measure to assess teacher performance, identity needs, and provide
support for professional development.

     The Philippine standard for teachers has 4
career stages; beginning teacher, proficient teachers, highly proficient
teachers and distinguished teachers. This stage contains the different level or
stage for the teachers’ development. The teacher evaluation is based on the
professional teaching standards that are to assess and to know what stage has
been developed by the teacher and would excel to the next stage.

     Stage 1 is the beginning teacher where in
the teacher must possess the requisite knowledge and skills when it comes to
teaching and learning process. Another description to that the teacher must
seek professional support from a colleague who has more experienced in

     Stage 2 is the proficient teachers where in
the teachers are professionally independent and he/she display skills in
planning, implementing and evaluating learning programs.

     Stage 3 is the teachers who are highly
proficient. In this stage, teachers are able to consistently display a high
level of performance and can provide support and mentoring to their colleagues
in developing their profession as a teacher.

     Lastly, Stage 4 are the distinguished
teachers that they embody the highest standard for teaching and they are
recognized as educators, leaders, contributors in teaching and the initiators
of collaboration and partnership.


Seven Domains of the Beginning
Teacher Indicators of the PPST

The competencies in the
NCBTS were derived from (a) educational theories and empirical research on
characteristics learning environment and teaching practices that lead to
effective student learning, and (b) documented successful practices and
programs of schools, divisions, regions, and educational reform projects in
different parts of the country.  A
technical working group was set up to study what types of classroom learning
experiences were associated with high levels of student learning in the
Philippines.  Then the teaching practices
associated with these learning experiences were defined.  These practices were then organized and then
presented in a series of national, zonal, and sectoral consultations for
validation and finalization.   

The bulk of the participants
in the consultation were teachers and master teachers, so we can be sure that
actual classroom teachers validated these competencies.  But there were also school heads, principals,
supervisors, superintendents and other division officials, regional directors
and other regional officials, representatives from academe, teacher education
institutions, NGOs and other government agencies like the CHED, PRC, CSC, and
NEDA, among others.   

seven domains of the standards comprise 37 strands that discuss more specific
contents on the teacher practices.

1. Content Knowledge and Pedagogy recognizes the
importance of teachers’ mastery of content knowledge and its interconnectedness
within and across curriculum areas, coupled with a sound and critical
understanding of the application of theories and principles of teaching and
learning. This Domain encompasses teachers’ ability to apply developmentally
appropriate and meaningful pedagogy grounded on content knowledge and current
research. It takes into account teachers’ proficiency in Mother Tongue,
Filipino and English in the teaching and learning process, as well as needed
skills in the use of communication strategies, teaching strategies, and
technologies to promote high quality learning outcomes (Teacher Education
Council, 2017).

    Domain 1, Content
Knowledge and Pedagogy, is composed of seven strands: 

Content knowledge and its application within and across curriculum areas

Research-based knowledge and principles of teaching and learning

Positive use of ICT

Strategies for promoting literacy and numeracy

Strategies for developing critical and creative thinking, as well as other
higher-order thinking skills

Mother Tongue, Filipino and English in teaching and learning

Classroom communication strategies

2. Learning Environment highlights the role of teachers
to provide learning environments that are safe, secure, fair and supportive in
order to promote learner responsibility and achievement. This Domain centers on
creating an environment that is learning-focused and in which teachers
efficiently manage learner behavior in a physical and virtual space. It
highlights the need for teachers to utilize a range of resources and provide
intellectually challenging and stimulating activities to encourage constructive
classroom interactions geared towards the attainment of high standards of
learning (Teacher Education Council, 2017).

2, Learning Environment, consists of six strands:

Learner safety and security

Fair learning environment

Management of classroom structure and activities

Support for learner participation

Promotion of purposive learning

Management of learner behavior 

3. Diversity of Learners emphasizes the central role of
teachers in establishing learning environments that are responsive to learner
diversity. This Domain underscores the importance of teachers’ knowledge and
understanding of, as well as respect for, learners’ diverse characteristics and
experiences as inputs to the planning and design of learning opportunities. It
encourages the celebration of diversity in the classrooms and the need for
teaching practices that are differentiated to encourage all learners to be
successful citizens in a changing local and global environment (Teacher
Education Council, 2017).

3, Diversity of Learners, consists of five strands:

Learners’ gender, needs, strengths, interests and experiences

Learners’ linguistic, cultural, socio-economic and religious backgrounds

Learners with disabilities, giftedness and talents 

Learners in difficult circumstances

 5. Learners from indigenous groups

4. Curriculum and Planning addresses teachers’ knowledge of
and interaction with the national and local curriculum requirements. This
Domain encompasses their ability to translate curriculum content into learning
activities that are relevant to learners and based on the principles of
effective teaching and learning. It expects teachers to apply their
professional knowledge to plan and design, individually or in collaboration
with colleagues, well-structured and sequenced lessons. These lesson sequences
and associated learning programs should be contextually relevant, responsive to
learners’ needs and incorporate a range of teaching and learning resources. The
Domain expects teachers to communicate learning goals to support learner
participation, understanding and achievement (Teacher Education Council, 2017).

4, Curriculum and Planning, includes five strands: 

Planning and management of teaching and learning process

Learning outcomes aligned with learning competencies

Relevance and responsiveness of learning programs

Professional collaboration to enrich teaching practice

Teaching and learning resources including ICT

5. Assessment and Reporting relates to processes
associated with a variety of assessment tools and strategies used by teachers
in monitoring, evaluating, documenting and reporting learners’ needs, progress
and achievement. This Domain concerns the use of assessment data in a variety
of ways to inform and enhance the teaching and learning process and programs.
It concerns teachers providing learners with the necessary feedback about
learning outcomes. This feedback informs the reporting cycle and enables
teachers to select, organize and use sound assessment processes (Teacher
Education Council, 2017).

5, Assessment and Reporting, is composed of five strands:

Design, selection, organization and utilization of assessment strategies

Monitoring and evaluation of learner progress and achievement

Feedback to improve learning

Communication of learner needs, progress and achievement to key stakeholders

Use of assessment data to enhance teaching and learning practices and programs

6. Community Linkages and Professional Engagement affirms
the role of teachers in establishing school-community partnerships aimed at
enriching the learning environment, as well as the community’s engagement in
the educative process. This Domain expects teachers to identify and respond to
opportunities that link teaching and learning in the classroom to the
experiences, interests and aspirations of the wider school community and other
key stakeholders. It concerns the importance of teachers’ understanding and
fulfilling their obligations in upholding professional ethics, accountability
and transparency to promote professional and harmonious relationships with
learners, parents, schools and the wider community (Teacher Education Council,

6, Community Linkages and Professional Engagement, consists of four

Establishment of learning environments that are responsive to community context

Engagement of parents and the wider school community in the educative process

Professional ethics

School policies and procedures

7. Personal Growth and Professional Development focuses
on teachers’ personal growth and professional development. It accentuates
teachers’ proper and high personal regard for the profession by maintaining
qualities that uphold the dignity of teaching such as caring attitude, respect
and integrity. This Domain values personal and professional reflection and
learning to improve practice. It recognizes the importance of teachers’
assuming responsibility for personal growth and professional development for
lifelong learning (Teacher Education Council, 2017).

     Domain 7, Personal Growth and Professional
Development, contains five strands: 

1. Philosophy
of teaching

2. Dignity of
teaching as a profession

Professional links with colleagues

Professional reflection and learning to improve practice

Professional development goals












Curricular Enhancement of Teacher
Education Program



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