Chemical Analyses showed that eggshell is composed of 97% Calcium Carbonate, (Burley and Vadehra, 1989).
The mean weight of hens eggshells is about 5.5 g, and its thickness is between 280 – 400 µm. The essential part of an eggshell contains 95.1% proteins (3.3%) and water (1.6%) of the constituents. The total weight of an eggshell is 37.3% and calcium is the main mineral component with 93.6% followed by Calcium Triphosphate (0-8%) and Magnesium Carbonate (Jörg Neunzehn,Thomas Szuwart, and Mars-Peter Wiesmann, 2014)
In animal studies, they test the effectiveness by feeding a lactating rat with a low calcium diet. They found out that it is effective for bone mineralization than other calcium sources (Kikuchi et al.,2002).
Eggshell calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
Eggshell powder is a natural source of calcium and other elements (e.g.strontium and fluorine) which may have a positive effect of metabolism. Clinical studies have showed that eggshell powder contains positive properties such as anti rachitic in rats and humans. Clinical and experimental studies that are already conducted have concluded the eggshell powder has a positive effects on bone and cartilage. This may help in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. (Rovensk’y J, Stancikova N, Masangryk P, Svik k, Istok R,2003)
According to The International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, a 2003 review article : Human and animal studies had found that a preparation of eggshells is natural source of Ca and other known elements.
“The bioavailability of calcium from this source, as tested in piglets was similar or better than that of food grade purified calcium carbonate” the authors wrote (C Claiborne Ray , 2014)
Eggshell Calcium contains as much as 38% of Ca and has lesser phosphorus content. Low Ca intake is serious problem for health which may be consociated with the high prevalence of osteoporosis among the aged in japan. Eggshell Ca is more explicable that the Ca carbonate as much as milk products. The result of these suggest that eggshell is beneficial foe bone and food with Ca that contain eggshell Ca as a nutraceutical . Moreover as reported eggshell Ca is more effective in increasing bone mineral density in overiectomized osteoporotic rat. (Masuda Y, Clinical Calcium , 2005)
Eggshell calcium is probably the best natural source of calcium and it is easier for your body to digest and absorb. Eggshell calcium presents healthy, balanced calcium due to trace amounts of other minerals contained it.The eggshell supplement group had measurable group increase in bone density. According to Dutch researchers have reported recently that there is highly positive effect of eggshell calcium ( with added magnesium and Vitamin D) on bone mineral density in scientific study (double blind, placebo-contolled). Laboratory test and measures of bone density were carefully made in these studies. One whole medium sized eggshell makes about one teaspoon of powder, which yields about 750-800 mgs of elemental calcium plus other micro elements . Eggshell has magnesium ,boron ,copper ,iron , manganese , molybdenum ,sulphur ,silicon ,zinc ,etc. There are 27 elements in total . The composition of an eggshell is very similar to that of our bones and teeth. Calcium and magnesium need to be taken in at least equal months. Some people require more magnesium than calcium they obtain from foods. (Copyright Bee Wider March 30,2015).
Using eggshells as a source of dietary calcium may lead to food poisoning due to salmonella or other bacterial contamination. According to the study published on 2003 in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, led by J. Rovensky of the National Institute of Rheumatic Diseases. Eggshell powder reduces the pain of osteoarthritis, the mobility increases and stops the loss of density in post-menopausal women. Calcium contains varies from eggshell to eggshell and from batch to batch, it depends on the method that used to extract it.
Our body needs calcium for our bones and teeth, and also our muscles and nerves for blood clothing to have a proper function. Calcium from food is best, but some people do not have enough calcium-rich foods. In some cases, they take calcium supplements to their complete daily needs for calcium. There are some supplements that absorbs easier in our body than the other supplements.
Compared eggshell powder, pure calcium carbonate, and a low-calcium “control” powder in 85 healthy postmenopausal dutch women, with both treatment groups also receiving magnesium and other nutrients. After 12 months, those in the eggshell group had increased bone density in the hip, but not in the spine, compared to the control group. No increases were seen in the calcium carbonate group, while the control group lost a little bone density. The study had a number of problems, however, including that the women already had adequate calcium intake (British Journal of Nutrition, 2002)
Health Benefits of Eggshell
Egg’s shell has a source of minerals and it contains 90% calcium. The chemical composition of calcium is almost identical to human’s teeth and bones because it is easily absorbed by our body. Calcium, if consumed in larger amounts, will not only get rid of lack of calcium symptoms, but it will also prevent stimulate the bone marrow in producing blood cells, osteoporosis development and it helps when it comes to treating high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. The egg’s shell also contains iron, zinc, manganese, copper, phosphorus, fluorine, molybdenum and chromium. (Deolu,2015)
The data on the relationship between calcium supplement use and risk of cardiovascular events , with an emphasis on 4 of the Bradford Hill criteria was examined by a group of experts in the fields of nutrition , cardiology ,epidemiology, food science , bone health , and integrative medicine. The result from epidemiological studies and meta-analysis of randomized , controlled clinical trials , including a subgroup analysis from the woman’s Health Initiative , draw on concern about a potential association in between calcium supplement use and a bit increase of adverse cardiovascular events. From other fellow study’s findimg added no detrimental effect of calcium from diet or supplements, even with or without vitamin D, on cardiovascular disease . (R. Heaney , S. Kopecky , K. Maki , J. Hathcock, D. MacKay, T. Wallecej 2012)
Our body needs calcium and maintain strong bones. Over 99% of the calcium in our body is stored in our bones and teeth.
Below are the current recommendations for the Institute of Medicine, by age:
Ø Women 50 and younger: 1,000 mg per day
Ø Men 70 and younger: 1,000 mg per day
Ø Women over 50: 1,200 mg per day
Ø Men over 70: 1,200 mg per day
Osteoporosis results due to the insufficient calcium intake. Our body remove calcium from our bone which makes our bone weak and brittle.
Many Doctors recommend women to take more calcium supplements because women especially after reaching menopausal stage they are prone to osteoporosis. After menopause, women lose bone mass due to a decline in estrogen.
Different Types of Calcium Supplements
Two main forms are:
Ø Calcium Carbonate
Ø Calcium Citrate
Calcium Supplements come in different forms, including tablets, capsules, chews, liquids and powders. They differ in how much elemental they contain and how will they’re absorbed. Elemental Calcium that is present in the compound.
It contains 40% elemental calcium and therefore usually delivers a lot of calcium in a small serving. This is the cheapest and most widely available form. It is more likely to cause side effects, such as gas, bloating and constipation. It is also recommended that calcium carbonate be taken with food for optimal absorption.
21% of it is elemental calcium and this form is more expensive. It is more easily absorbed than calcium carbonate and can be taken with or without food. It is more recommended for people with irritable bowel syndrome. Better choice for those with low level or stomach acid, a condition common among older people and those taking medications for acid reflux. (An evidence-based nutrition article from our experts at Authority Nutrition. Published on October 22, 2016)
Calcium Supplements reduce the risk of factor and part of the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis; this is commonly used by people over the age of 50. (IR Reid, 2010) Experts have found out that calcium supplementation is beneficial for the health in children, young adults and menopausal women (DA Straub, 2007) Calcium Supplements reduce the rate of bone loss in post-menopausal women by about 50%. However, the efficacy of calcium supplements on fracture risk remains unclear (R.G. Cumming, M.C. Nevitt; 1997) Studies have concluded that calcium supplementation have a very significant effects on coloclectal adenomas. It reduces the risk of the disease. (J.A. Baron, M.D., M. Beach, M.D., Ph.D., U.S. Mandel, Ph. D., R.U. van Stolk, M.D., R.W. Haile, D.R. P.H., R.S. Sandler, M.D., M.P.H., R. Rothstein, M.D., R.W. Summers, M.D., D.C. Snover, M.D., M.D., G.). Beck, Ph. D., J.H. Bond, M.D., H. Frankl, M.M., L. Pearson, M. Phil. And E.R. Greenberg, M.D., 1999)
The efficacy of calcium supplements on Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women have tested by professionals. They began a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to officially decide the effect of calcium on bone loss from the spine, femoral neck, and radius in 301 healthy postmenopausal women. After testing, they have concluded that healthy older postmenopausal women with a calcium intake of less than 400 mg daily, can revelatory reduce bone loss by increasing their calcium intake by 800 mg daily. With the dosage they’ve used, supplementation with calcium citrate malate was more potent than supplementation with calcium carbonate. They’ve studied the two calcium sources; calcium carbonate and calcium citrate malate because of its demonstrated bioavailability. The results of the study supported the hypothesis that the healthy postmenopausal women who are most likely to benefit from calcium supplements are those whose calcium intake is low. (Bess Dawson-Hughes, M.D., Gerald E. Dallal, Ph.D. et al.,1990).
Diet is the best way to get calcium. Calcium is important for optimal bone health throughout our life. The calcium supplements may be option in our diet falls short.
Heart, muscles and nerves needed calcium to function properly. Our body needs calcium to build and maintain strong bones. Vitamin D along with calcium, have benefits beyond bone health in some cases and studies. It perhaps and protects against cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure. Evidence about such health benefits is not definitive.
Some of us have insufficient in taking calcium, we could face health problems related to weak bones:
ü Children may not reach their full potential adult height.
ü Adults may have low bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis
Our calcium daily needs depends on our age and sex. If we exceed is taking too much calcium it may increase the risk of our health problems that is related to excessive calcium. Our body doesn’t produce calcium, so we must get it through other sources. Some calcium can be found in a variety of foods. To absorb calcium, vitamin D is needed in our body. Some of our foods naturally contain a small amount of vitamin D. Calcium is commonly found in antacids used to treat indigestion. People at risk of calcium deficiency include post-menopausal women are necessary to intake more calcium supplements but in a good and productive way. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015)