Cosmetic merchandises are really of import in human life due to the betterment of the life criterions. And by conveying the merchandises to possible clients, decorative advertizements are rather popular in all agencies of media. Actually, decorative advertizers bring the merchandises to clients in different ways which depend largely on who the clients are. In other words, they design different advertizements of the same merchandise to aim different groups of viewing audiences, viz. work forces and adult females. The differences among such advertizements actuate me to make a small-scaled research on one of the factors that lead to such different characteristics: the linguistic communications used in those advertizements. In more inside informations, this essay aims to analyze if any gender-based lingual differences can be utilized in decorative advertizements with the intent of aiming and act uponing viewing audiences of different genders by replying the undermentioned research inquiries:
– Why do advertizers necessitate more than one advertizement for ONE same merchandise?
– Is linguistic communication one of the most of import differences ( among other differences like characters, linguistic communication, other advertisement techniques … ) between the two sorts of advertizements? Then why and how of import is it in doing such difference?
In this subdivision, a general position of advertisement and gender differences will be introduced in order to supply a basic background to reply the really first research inquiry before the chief focal point of the essay is discussed about farther inside informations of linguistic communication usage in advertizements. A particular attending is paid on the theory of gender differences in linguistic communication usage in advertizements, which will be examined in seven different advertizements for Clear Shampoo in the ulterior portion of the essay.
2.1. An overview of advertisement
Presents, concerns and makers are really cognizant of the great importance of publicizing their merchandises or services since a successful advertizement can convey them great net incomes whereas an unfortunate commercial can take them to bankruptcy ( Sadek-Endrawes, 2008 ) . Therefore, concerns and industries ever try their best to happen out ways to plan the best advertizements for their merchandises and services with the use of effectual techniques. Those techniques so are used as tools to pull attending, “engage heads, trigger emotions and alter what people think” ( adcracker.com – a celebrated web site for tips, tools and techniques to make first advertisement thoughts ) . Among them are particular metaphors ( a symbolic representation for the merchandise ) , promises of benefit or job resolution, offers of free samples, characteristics of human-like and life-like, characteristics of “eye candy” , etc. Writers from adcracker.com besides believe that it might be utile to take or make their ain characters who are put in some particular state of affairss, for illustration struggles, which can be exaggerated. But the most and foremost of import techniques that all advertizement interior decorators need to cognize are the techniques of taking the mark viewing audiences and linguistic communication sagely and correspondingly. That is the ground why there are sometimes more than one advertizements designed for merely one individual merchandise.
2.1.1. Language usage as a powerful advertisement technique
It is obvious that linguistic communication plays a critical function in the society in general and in everyone ‘s life in peculiar. We use linguistic communication of all sorts every twenty-four hours, if it is non to state, every minute to pass on with other people, to acquire ourselves and our ain sentiments expressed and frailty versa to acquire the same things from others ( Gyllgard, 2006 ) . Mastering that communicative power of linguistic communication, reasonable advertizers seem to ever seek their best to use linguistic communication as a powerful tool to act upon the viewing audiences. More specifically, they frequently try to utilize linguistic communication rather distinctively in order to catch viewing audiences ‘ attending ( adcracker.com ) . For illustration, they sometimes play with words, utilize them out of context, and make new 1s in order to assist viewing audiences retrieve a certain trade name. Sometimes, those words become the celebrated motto for the trade name like Traveling Forward for Toyota autos or Malaysia Truly Asia for Tourism in Malaysia. Language in advertizements is besides used as internationalized ( Sadek-Endrawes, 2008 ) , which is expected to be good in order to make same response from viewing audiences of different states in instance the merchandise comes into the planetary market. Another observation which is recorded by Gallic research workers about linguistic communication usage in advertizements is that 50 per centum of all words are supposed to be nouns and verbs. In decision, with the wise pick of linguistic communication, advertizers can do outstanding effects on advertizement viewing audiences.
2.1.2. Viewing audiences targeted as an influential advertisement technique
Most advertizers know that advertisement techniques have persuasive energy and that the strength of such persuasive energy is measured in several ways, but most significantly in relation to a mark audience ( adkracker.com ) . It is explained by adcracker.com that different mark audience have different life styles, different attitudes, different feelings and emotions, which is accordingly resulted in different behaviours. Therefore, successful advertizers are frequently reasonable in edifice adverts that can acquire people to take action or works a belief in the heads of their prospective purchasers by closely tie ining their adverts with the targeted viewing audiences. It is besides agreed by itvdictionary.com that the “personalization” to a group of mark audience can take to “greater awareness” . More specifically, in a ChoiceStream study, they noted that 38 % of respondents say that they are more willing to pay attending wage attending to such separately focussed advertisement.
2.2. An overview of gender difference
2.2.1. Gender difference in general
Work force and adult females are different in assorted facets which can chiefly be categorized into biological and societal factors. Consequently, different footings are coined to demo such differences, for illustration “sex” and “gender” .
Sexual activity is defined by Eckert and McConnell-Ginnet ( 2003:10 ) as a “biological categorization” which is based chiefly on “reproductive potential” and “gender” is the “social elaboration” of biological sex. This means that “sex” is something fixed before birth ( Thomas, 2004 ) with while “gender” is something that the societal life forms on us continuously in every gait of our life ( Graddol and Swann, 1994:8 ) . And it is believed and proved by many researches ( Coates, 1993 ; Tannen, 1993 ; and Trudgill, 2000 ) that gender has a major influence on linguistic communication usage by a procedure named “socialization” ( Tannen 1993:84 )
2.2.2. Gender difference in linguistic communication usage
As afore-mentioned, linguistic communication is an of import portion of an person ‘s life which helps to organize his/ her “social identity” ( Gyllgard, 2006:1 ) by different “linguistic habits” which reflect different “individual lifes and experiences” ( Graddol and Swann, 1994:5 ) . Coates ( 1993:144 ) besides claims that “when kids adopt lingual behaviour considered appropriate to their gender they perpetuate the societal order which creates gender distinctions” This means that linguistic communication is among the most important factors, bedsides societal functions and societal places, that make great differentiations between work forces and adult females. Actually, it is observed that work forces and adult females use linguistic communication otherwise in a “gender-appropriate” mode ( Tannen, 1993:85 ) since they are little.
In the undermentioned portion of the paper, that different usage of linguistic communication by different genders will be discussed in three chief facets: ( 1 ) subject picks, ( 2 ) word picks and ( 3 ) mode of speech production
In footings of subject picks, work forces are believed to speak more about athleticss or other physical activities when they are little ( Poynton, 1989 ) and about current concerns, about their strength and their laterality ( Coulmas, 2005 ) when they grow up. Meanwhile, adult females are believed to pass clip speaking more on place activities, love affair and fantasy universes. Subsequently in their life, they are considered to take to speak about “nonsense” and “unimportant” personal subjects ( Gyllgard, 2006 ) . Consequently, work forces ‘s linguistic communication is frequently considered as serious and of import while adult females ‘s is seen as fiddling and easy to disregard ( Coates, 1993 ) .
It is believed that adult females seem to be more careful about taking words than work forces. And it is explained that this consequences from the different functions of the two genders in the society. Womans are considered to hold their first and first functions as caring the households and conveying up kids. Consequently, they need to be careful with the words they use or otherwise they may put bad illustrations for their kids. Besides sing word picks, in their plants ( Poyton, 1989 and Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003 ) , research workers find that adult females use more intensifies ( such as so and really ) , words of estimate ( such as about and around ) , or unessential qualifiers ( like truly or so ) than work forces. Womans are besides claimed to utilize more adjectives ( including “empty” adjectives like cute and appraising adjectives like wonderful ) and adverbs. Furthermore, hedges and tag inquiries are found more in adult females linguistic communication instead than work forces ‘s in order to necessitate verification or signal uncertainness severally ( Lakoff, 1989 ) .
Manner of speech production
With the same grounds of different societal functions, in footings of mode of speech production, adult females seem to be more polite in talking. Therefore, it seems that forbidden linguistic communication like slang or swear words are likely to be created and used by work forces instead than by adult females ( Poyton, 1989 ) . Lakoff ( 1989 ) besides agrees with this by giving an illustration that adult females choose to utilize weaker curses like oh beloved or goodness alternatively of words like crap or darn. Meanwhile, Coates ( 1993 ) believes that the linguistic communication used by adult females is collaboration-oriented with supportive remarks to make and keep relationship of “closeness” and “equality” while that used by work forces is competition-oriented in order to asseverate their places of laterality.
There are differences between work forces and adult females ‘s linguistic communication in other facets, nevertheless, due to the bound of this essay, merely three above-named are chosen to be discussed in this subdivision and to be examined in the ulterior one.
3. Methodology and Data
This survey focuses on the difference between the linguistic communications used by work forces and adult females in different advertizements for one same merchandise, viz. Clear Shampoo, a really popular shampoo in Vietnam. Second, it will prove whether the advertizers are successful in using the difference between work forces and adult females linguistic communication in order to aim viewing audiences of different genders by look intoing whether viewing audiences of different genders can acknowledge which advertizement is for them or non.
First of all, English versions of seven Clear Shampoo advertizements are selected to be the information for analysing and those advertizements are chosen for several grounds. First, shampoo is now an indispensable decorative merchandise that people, irrespective of their age, their societal or fiscal position and surely their gender, have to utilize in their day-to-day life. Therefore, it is worthwhile to look into the advertizements of such merchandise. Second, it is found that there are several different advertizements of Clear Shampoo on telecasting every bit good as on Youtube at the same clip and it is presumed by the writer that it may ensue from the advertizers ‘ intent of aiming viewing audiences of different genders. Consequently, with the aid of Google hunt and Youtube web site, seven advertizements of Clear Shampoo are collected and transcribed in the appendices of this essay for being analyzed. Differences among those advertizements will so be figured out by look intoing the above-named theory and subsequently used to group the seven advertizements into 3 groups: for work forces, for adult females and for both work forces and adult females.
To do the research more dependable, the seven selected advertizements for Clear Shampoo are shown to 20 viewing audiences of both genders who are non-native talkers of English but gain sufficient proficiency to understand the advertizements. Actually, they are Vietnamese instructors of English and pupils of some M.A. plans for English Linguistics or English Teaching Methodology. The viewing audiences are asked to watch the seven advertizements and reply four following inquiries:
– Who does each advertizement mark, work forces or adult females?
– What features of the advertizement Tell you about its mark viewing audiences?
– Does linguistic communication used in the advertizement one of those characteristics?
– How does linguistic communication state you about the mark viewing audiences?
4. Data analysis and consequences
The consequences of the interviews surprise the writer when most of interviewees, after replying the first two inquiries, claim the characteristics that inform them about the mark viewing audiences of the advertizements are chiefly the theoretical accounts and images of the ads. Most of them merely pay attending to the linguistic communication of the advertizement after the 3rd inquiry. However, they all realize the difference in the linguistic communication used in the adverts and agree that the linguistic communication used in adverts by work forces and adult females partially tell us about the mark viewing audiences.
Therefore, foremost, this subdivision presents the gender differences in linguistic communication used in seven Clear Shampoo advertizements which are grouped in differences in ( 1 ) pick of subject, ( 2 ) pick of word and ( 3 ) mode of talking. Such differences are resulted from the information analysis which is based on the above-named background and the sentiments of the interviewees.
4.1 Choice of subject
It is revealed by the advertizement analysis that male theoretical accounts talk about their assurance and demo their strength every bit good as their laterality to others by confronting the jobs:
… Black is confident… . Assurance means no dandruff. ( Appendix 1 )
… Face it. … Cover it. … I cover with dandruff like adult male. ( Appendix 4 )
or …Rage. Fury against her breath of fright. ( Appendix 5 )
Meanwhile, female theoretical accounts talk about beautyas in:
… some beauty shampoos ( Appendix 3 )
about their day-to-day activities such as “combing” in appendix 3 or about their emotion and their perceptual experience as in:
… I love my hair. … I ‘m positive. ( Appendix 2 )
… Convinced. I am. ( Appendix 3 )
They besides mention one fact that they frequently try to avoid the problems they encounter:
… Hide it… Cover it… I keep it secret as any adult female should. ( Appendix 4 )
4.2 Choice of words
4.2.1 Verb pick
As male theoretical accounts choose to speak about their assurance, their strength every bit good as their laterality, they use words that help to show absolutely what they mean. Actually, they use strong verbs as “breath” , “move” and “sweat” in appendix 1 or “face” , “solve” , and “deal with” in appendix 4 or verbs that show their action as in
… I trust Clear. ( Appendix 1 )
The verbs spoken by male voiceovers besides have the same characteristic: “remove” and “prevent” the dandruff ( appendix 5 ) , or do the dandruff “go away” and “stay away” ( appendix 7 ) so that “it ‘s all settled” ( appendix 4 ) .
All those verbs bring to the audience the active place of the talkers, and therefore, uncover their dominant places.
On the other manus, the verbs used by female theoretical accounts are rather different when they seem to expose the defensive places of the adult females
… I ‘m positive. ( Appendix 2 )
… Convinced. I am. ( Appendix 3 )
or their turning away solutions for dandruff by concealing it, covering it or maintaining it secret ( appendix 4 ) .
4.2.2 Adjectival pick
As their concerns are different, female and male theoretical accounts choose different adjectives when they speak about their hair.
For illustration, most male theoretical accounts and voiceovers use “black” to speak about their hair or the hair they want to hold:
… I like black. Black is confident. Black looks good. ( Appendix 1 )
… From black into darkness … and into the dark, the icy inkiness follows. ( Appendix 5 )
… the seduction of black, the enticement of black. It ‘s the intimacy of black that you can merely have… Be black. ( Appendix 6 )
At the same clip, female theoretical accounts talk about the characteristics of “soft” , “clean” and “beautiful” which are merely suited to depict female hair.
… Clear makes my hair soft and beautiful….Just soft hair. ( Appendix 2 )
… Can your shampoo leave your hair soft and clean … Clear takes it soft. …Just soft hair. ( Appendix 3 )
4.3 Manner of speech production
The last but non least characteristic that 20 viewing audiences and the writer realize as the difference between the two genders is the manner they speak. Female theoretical accounts talk with a collaborative orientation. They talk as if they want to portion their experience with the audience whereas male theoretical accounts and voiceovers try to asseverate their places of laterality by a competitory orientation. They talk about their dealing with dandruff ( appendix 4 ) , the hit of “sparks” and dandruff ( appendix 5 ) , their black “seduction” and “temptation” when they are dandruff free ( appendix 6 ) . The inclination of laterality is besides expressed by their short jussive mood sentences which can be found more often in male theoretical accounts or voiceovers ‘ address:
… Face it … Solve it ( Appendix 4 )
… Rage, fury against her breath of fright. ( Appendix 5 )
… Make the season more seductive. Make it a Clear Black Valentine ‘s. Be board. Be Black. Move closer anytime. Have Clear Black Valentine ‘s. ( Appendix 6 )
The first advertizement with the male theoretical account, Bi Rain, besides offers another characteristic of male address. That is the logic in thought and speech production:
… Black is confident. Black looks good. Looking good means no dandruff. Assurance means no dandruff. Clear means no dandruff.
With his logical address, Bi Rain attempts to convert the audience the close relationship among Clear, black, confident and looking good. And he seems successful with my interviewees.
All in all, from the above analysis of the linguistic communication used in seven adverts, it comes to a decision that advertisement No 1, 5 and 6 are targeted at work forces ( although by what the writer and the interviewees get from the adverts, 5 and 6 mark at both work forces and adult females ) ; advertisement No 2 and 3 are for adult females and the remainder are targeted at both work forces and adult females.
It can be seen from the consequences that the female linguistic communication and male linguistic communication used in seven Clear Shampoo advertizements follow tightly the theory that are presented in other researches on gender differences in linguistic communication. However, the interviews with Vietnamese viewing audiences who are non-native talkers of English reveal that what lead such viewing audiences to the decision of mark audience are non the linguistic communication but the theoretical accounts and the images of the advertizements.
The survey besides come to another decision that the advertizers, who are expected to pay attending to the linguistic communication of advertisement, an effectual tool of persuasion, do non really do so. And the consequences are the incorrect mark of the two advertizements figure 5 and 6, which advertizers tend to aim at both work forces and adult females ( which can be understood by the images of “white Clear” for adult females and “black Clear” for work forces ) but really aim merely at work forces if lone linguistic communication of the advertizements is analyzed.