Cyber-crime continues to be proliferated due to the lack of collaborative measures amongst Member States and educational reforms to better meet the demands of an expansive technological world. Turkey has experienced several large-scale cyber-attacks, from 2011 to the present day. We are developing programs to better educate students who are pursuing a career in computer science to handle large scale cyber infrastructures. We are also recommending that education in computer science starts in the primary education sections, so students will be more advanced by the time they enter the collegiate level. Since computer science is always progressing we recommend that more children interested in the field pursue it vigorously and seriously, because the world needs experts who can navigate a shifting landscape. To adapt to the cyber environment, we have adopted the Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA) which has five essential pillars, chief among them being the organizational structures pillar; discussing the national policies and standards appropriate for preventing, addressing, and managing cyber-attacks. Turkey has developed a short-run plan for national threats; we have implemented Cyber Incident Response Organizations to effectively deal with cyber-attacks; such as sectoral Teams for Responding to Cyber Incidents (SOME). The most important function of SOME is alerting other public agencies to the dangers of cyber-attacks and how to identify and respond to them.
The delegation of Turkey recommends that Member States corroborate with UNODA to gain from their military confidence-building measures which can set up frameworks for creating trust amongst Member States. Many Member States disagree about the extent of cyber security, cyber warfare, and cyber terrorism definitions. To ensure cyber capacity building, we recommend that legislation put forth is not in violation of human rights. The AU Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection (2014) contains essential frameworks that can unite regional Member States in drafting legislation that is accepted across borders, but there are still contentions with some of the human rights offenses presented in the convention, such as limitations of freedom of speech. The development of confidence building measures is key in securing the development and the nonproliferation of malicious ICTs for warfare, and intelligence gathering. Turkey supports General Assembly Resolution 70/237 (2015) which highlights cyber security, technological development, and ICTs in the context of creating international safety measures. To achieve the goals and recommendations outlined in the aforementioned resolution, it is necessary to build regional frameworks to accompany new laws. Provisions outlined in General Assembly Resolution 71/39 (2016) will help build regional coalitions in the endeavor to create multilateral uniform frameworks and legislation to establish preventative measures and share resources for cyber-attacks.
Turkey recognizes that Member States with less developed technological infrastructures may struggle to meet many demands of the frameworks set up in resolutions aimed at preventing cyber-attacks and cyber-terrorism. We recommend the principles highlighted in General Assembly Resolution 71/251 (2016) which call for the creation of the Technology Bank to assist less developed Member States in building the capacity to harness current technologies and to have access to the knowledge more developed Member States possess. We are proud to be the hosts of the Technology Bank and plan to use the trust fund entrusted to us to help those developing Member States in need pf monetary assistance do develop their technological infrastructure. This will ensure that all Member States will be able to keep up with rapid expansion of the technological landscape and be prepared to deal with cyber-attacks and cyber-defense. We call upon Member States, who have the financial capabilities, to donate funding to the Technology Bank so we can further develop its foundation. Furthermore, Turkey supports the use of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) who submit annual reports to the General Assembly that is useful to the future of cyber-defense. We encourage Member States to take a multilateral approach in dealing with the GGE to ensure a global understanding of the cyber-terrain and the scope of cyber-terrorism.
II. Measures to Strengthen International Counter-Terrorism Efforts
The threat of terrorism is universal and places all Member States in potential harm. The danger extends beyond the threat to life and limb and includes the national instability and global insecurity that terrorism often causes. Furthermore, terrorism threatens the fundamental human rights and freedom that the Charter of the United Nations calls on the General Assembly and the United Nations to help promote. This damage can be seen most readily in the recent devastation that ISIL has caused to the lives and livelihoods of people living in the territories under its control.
Turkey is firmly committed to countering terrorism and to the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. Turkey has experienced suffering inflicted from terrorist attacks, and we have been fighting terrorism for decades. We have not yielded in our national efforts against the separatist Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) or the far-left Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP-C), two internationally recognized terrorist organizations. Most recently, Turkey has been an engaged member of the international coalition against ISIL. This includes participating in planning and operations, offering our facilities and airspace in support of coalition efforts, implementing measures to arrest the flow of foreign ISIL fighter and stem oil smuggling through our ports and across our borders. Well beyond our borders, Turkey has been a steadfast supporter of NATO operations to secure Afghanistan and eliminate terrorist bases there in the form of troop contributions to NATO’s International Security Assistance Force and its successor Resolute Support Mission.
Turkey supports further action to fully implement the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy outlined in General Assembly Resolution 60/288 (2006) and a robust review of its framework and performance during its next biennial review. In support of the first pillar’s call for suppressing the conditions that contribute to the proliferation of terrorism, our prime minister at the time, Recep Tayyip Erdo?an (now president), joined with the Spanish prime minister to establish the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations in 2005 with the aim of promoting dialogue to diffuse the cultural and religious tension that often serves to inspire terrorism. We encourage all Member States to constructively participate in the venture. As called for in General Assembly Resolution 71/151 (2016), Turkey endorses national legislation to incorporate the United Nations’ counter-terrorism conventions and resolutions into domestic law and to establish effective national structures to locate, hinder, and prosecute terrorists in order to further implement the second pillar of the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy aimed at curbing terrorist attacks. To meet the third pillar’s design toward improving Member States’ counter-terrorism capabilities, Turkey calls on Member States to replicate Turkey’s own program of international cooperation in the training of counter-terrorism law enforcement personnel.
III. Combating the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons
The presence and availability of small arms and light weapons in large quantities hampers international efforts at promoting peace and security. The ability of non-state actors to acquire arsenals threatens Member States’ monopoly on the legitimate use of force and ability to execute policy. Small arms threaten directly Member States on an institutional level and are a danger to the safety of their civilian populations. Member States and the United Nations have made strong efforts at curbing the illicit trade in small arms. Turkey voted in favor of the Arms Trade Treaty adopted in General Assembly Resolution 67/234.
Turkey recognizes the accumulation of SALW has been detrimental to the socioeconomic growth of developing Member States, as well as to Turkey in the past. In light of these events we have firmly supported the use of cooperation amongst Member States to create tighter border security which results in reduction of extensive weapons trafficking. Within the OSCE Turkey was one of the first Member States to introduce a draft resolution which created a register that included specific categories of light arms. This has allowed for a much stricter form of international security and transparency amongst Member States. It is essential that less developed countries are aided in their protection of their SALW stockpiles. As one of the top exporters in light arms we realize the dangers in surplus and seized weapons, so we uphold the international standards which call for the destruction of any surplus or seized SALW. we realize swift disarmament is an unrealistic measure so we fully support measures outlined in General Assembly Resolution 71/64 which highlights the importance of realistic disarmament measures and drawing attention to unlawful actions. It is important for neighboring Member States to ensure that their borders are secure, and that trafficking transit routes are eliminated swiftly. If SALW are being trafficked, there is an interrelationship between that and trafficking people, drugs, and other WMDs. To ensure global safety we must first create transparency amongst bordering Member States, and then monitor manufacturers and traders of SALW.