Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Dairy Your Bones and Health?”, 2018). However,

Dairy products are a type of food that is produced by the mammary glands from mammals such as cattle, water buffalos, goats, sheep and even humans. They are manufactured in mass – typically in the form of eggs, butter, yogurt and cheese – with different ingredients and come in a variety of forms to be incorporated into more complex recipes. One of the most consumed dairy products in Canada is milk and is slowly declining in commercial sales as consumers make “healthier” choices (“Changes in Canadians’ preferences for milk and dairy products”, 2018). Milk has been in much debates about its necessity for the development of bones but emerging research is neither in favor or against. It is undeniably clear that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for a growing infant until one year of age when it can be substituted with regular milk (Martin, C. R., Ling, P.-R., & Blackburn, G. L., 2016). However, for individuals who are born with a milk allergy or lactose intolerance, or consequently develop it, they may seem to run risk of osteoporosis if milk is the alleged biofuel that prevents it. Additionally, there are individuals who are prohibited1 to drink milk or choose to abstain from it due to a philosophical standpoint2. The two most vital nutrients in bone strength is calcium and Vitamin D. The amount of calcium per 100g of milk is 12% while there is usually no Vitamin D unless added. Vitamin D and calcium can both be ingested by supplements and other food groups such as fish or orange juice. Although milk has the largest calcium content out of the food groups (“Food Sources of Calcium”, 2018), other food items such as kale and some meat alternatives are a good second and won’t cause fatal reactions. Additionally, a cross sectional and longitudinal study had shown no difference in risk of bone fracture between individuals who engaged in patterns of eating that involved milk and those who did not (Burckhardt, P., 2015). Additionally, consuming high amounts of lactose presented a two fold or more risk of developing prostate and ovarian cancer for men and women respectively for those who had more than three cups per day  (“Calcium: What’s Best for Your Bones and Health?”, 2018). However, available scientific evidence shows that milk & dairy intake does meet nutrient recommendations and may protect against some diseases but only in childhood and its effects on bone health in adulthood are limited (Thorning, T. K., Raben, A., Tholstrup, T., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Givens, I., & Astrup, A., 2016). A review of dairy products in an effort to help health professionals help their patients make a well informed decision about their diet found a weak association between dairy intake and reduced risk of bone fracture (Rozenberg, S., Body, J.-J., Bruyère, O., Bergmann, P., Brandi, M. L., Cooper, C., … Reginster, J.-Y., 2016). All in all, there is no scientific proof that heralds dairy as the food that strengthens bones but there is proof that it does for infants to adolescents.

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