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Diction: a figure of speech that involves

Diction: refers to the choice of words
and style of expression that an author makes and uses in a work of literature

Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/diction/.
“You just hold your head high and keep those fists
down. No matter what anybody says to you, don’t you let ’em get your goat.
Try fighting with your head for a change.”
( To Kill a Mockingbird, Page 78)

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This quote
from Atticus Finch, in the book To Kill
a Mockingbird uses strong diction to show his achievement and celebration
as a lawyer. He also uses short and simple diction when he is talking to her
daughter, Scout. An example of it is when he says, “hold you head high”. He
uses encouraging tone towards his daughter to show the readers the usage of
diction in his everyday formal language as a lawyer. Through the use of
diction he builds a close relationship with his daughter and grabs the
reader’s attention with his lawyerly role.



Epistrophe: a figure of speech that
involves the repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive clauses
or sentences
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/epistrophe/.
distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each
separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I
wished the morrow;—vainly I had sought to borrow
From my
books surcease of sorrow—sorrow for the lost Lenore—
For the
rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore—
here for evermore. ( The Raven)

The poem, The raven by Edgar Allen Poe, uses
Epistrophe to show the love and passion that the narrator has for Lenore.
Through the use of rhyme scheme with repetition, the narrator shows love for
Lenore. The narrator uses the word Lenore very repetitively, to show the
emphasis of rhyme and to show the readers the importance of the character
Lenore in the poem. He presents dark and gloomy tone throughout the entire
poem and with the use of epistrophe, He brings out the idea to the readers
and grabs their attention.



Ethos: a way of appealing to an
audience by showing one’s credibility and ethical character
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/ethos/.
“And in
fact, the Acting Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics informed me
this morning that, and I quote: 60 “Employment costs per unit of steel output
in 1961 were essentially the same as they were in 1958.” (John F. Kennedy
Steel Speech, lines 57-61)

President John
F. Kennedy gives a speech on the increase in steel price on April 11, 1962. Throughout
the speech, Kennedy appealed to his credibility in many ways. One of the main
one is that, he built his own credibility buying being the United States
president. He earned his credibility by his people because the people voted
for him as a president and all the support he gets form him supporters. The
cost of steel increased because of the Steel companies actions and efforts.
John F. Kennedy establishes a disappointing tone towards the steel companies,
but it gives the readers and his supporters to show credibility to him.



Euphemism: a polite or mild word or
expression used to refer to something embarrassing, taboo, or unpleasant.
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/euphemism/.
You know
the truth, and the truth is this: some Negroes lie, some Negroes are immoral,
some Negro men are not to be trusted around women—black or white. But this is
a truth that applies to the human race and to no particular race of men.
There is not a person in this courtroom who has never told a lie, who has
never done an immoral thing, and there is no man living who has never looked
upon a woman without desire. ( To Kill a Mockingbird, Page 208)

This quote
from Harper Lee, in the book To Kill a
Mockingbird uses Euphemism to show the change over time. In this quote,
he uses the terms “Negro” to refer to a specific group of people. During that
time this terms was considered as inoffensive, but compared to modern times,
it is considered as a offend to a group of people. This quote is spoken by
Atticus Finch, who is a lawyer, is trying to defend Tom Robinson, with the
guilty of assaulting, by saying all men are alike, no matter what race. He
presents a passionate tone to shown the importance of euphemism and to inform
the people about race.



Euphony: refers to the quality of
being pleasant to listen to
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/euphony/.
methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by
Seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
I cried, “thy God hath lent thee—by these angels he hath sent thee
and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore;
Quaff, oh
quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!”
Quoth the
Raven “Nevermore.” ( The Raven)

The poem, The raven by Edgar Allen Poe, uses
Euphony to show the dark and depressing time through the use of stanzas. He
also uses rhyme scheme throughout the poem like the r sound, to bring out the
quality of the point and to grab the reader attention. The poet also changes
the order of the word and the sound to make it more pleasant and appealing to
the reader. It also shows hard and depressing times for the reader due to the
connections to his real life situation. He presents a dark and depressing
tone to bring out the euphony of the rhyme scheme.



Fallacy: a display of faulty reasoning
that makes an argument invalid, or a faulty belief based on an unsound
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/fallacy/.
The state
has not produced one iota of medical evidence to the effect that the crime
Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony
of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious
question on cross-examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the
defendant. The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this courtroom is. (
To kill a Mockingbird, Page 207)

In the
book, To kill a Mockingbird, the
lawyer Atticus Finch presents a lot of fallacy throughout this quote. He
establishes lots of invalid fallacies to represent to innocence of Tom
Robinson case because of the skin color. One type of fallacy he uses burden
of proof fallacy to make the jury believe in him because he has all the
proof, evidence, and documents. The use of fallacy in this quote, helps the
readers make a decision based on the invalid arguments that Atticus Finch
presents. The untruthful and spurious tone shows the arguments between the
characters and grabs the reader’s attention by the invalid assumptions.



Foreshadowing: a literary device in which
the author gives clues about events that will happen later in the story
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 13 Jan. 2016, www.literarydevices.com/foreshadowing/.
Tut man, one fire burns out another’s burning.
One pain
is lessened by another’s anguish.
giddy, and be helped by backward turning.
desperate grief cures with another’s languish.
Take thou
some new infection to thy eye,
And the
rank poison of the old will die. (Romeo and Juliet, Act I Scene II)

Romeo and Juliet, a short play by William
Shakespeare uses foreshadowing to present clues and innuendo
about the event that will take place later in the play. Shakespeare uses
foreshadowing to give clues about Romeo death. Benvolio also uses
foreshadowing by using the term, “rank poison” to foreshadow of Romeo’s death
later in the play by drinking poison.  This quote presents a serious tone to show
the readers about the death of the main character at the end of the play.
Through the use of foreshadowing we were able to predict the ending of the



Hyperbole: the use of obvious and
deliberate exaggeration
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/hyperbole/.
A day was
hours long
but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go,
nothing to
buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries
of Maycomb
County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people:
County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself. (
To Kill a Mockingbird, Page 5-6)

In the
book, To kill a Mockingbird, the
Scout is over exaggerating, when she says that there is nowhere to go in the
Maycomb County. In the Maycomb County, most people just go to the town
square, café, or the school. There is not a lot of shopping plaza or mall for
people to spend their money, which during this time to get money is even hard
due to the great depression. An example of which Scout says, “nothing to buy
and no money to buy it with.” The lonesome and friendless tone shows hoe
Scout over exaggerates about the Maycomb County and it also gives an
exaggeration and an imagery for the reader about the Maycomb County.



Imagery: consists of descriptive
language that can function as a way for the reader to better imagine the
world of the piece of literature and also add symbolism to the work
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/imagery/.
My little
horse must think it queer
To stop
without a farmhouse near
the woods and frozen lake
darkest evening of the year.
He gives
his harness bells a shake
To ask if
there is some mistake.
The only
other sound’s the sweep
Of easy
wind and downy flake. (“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” , Robert Frost)

The poem, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,
by Robert Frost presents a literature and symbolic imagery of sound
throughout the poem. In this excerpt, Robert Frost also uses juxtaposition of
two sounds, the bring noise of the horse’s harness bells and the silent sound
of the wind. Through the use of juxtaposition, it gives the reader a side by
side comparison between the imagery of sound in the poem, and it also give
the readers a realistic scene of a dark night with sound. The dark and gloomy
tone, juxtaposition, and imagery gives the readers a realistic scene and a
better image of the literature.



Irony: a contrast or incongruity
between expectations for a situation and what is reality
Examples and Definition.” Literary Devices, 30 Oct. 2015, www.literarydevices.com/irony/.
Jim had
not yet seen his beautiful gift. She held it out to him in
her open
hand. The gold seemed to shine softly as if with her own warm
and loving
“Isn’t it
perfect, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You’ll have
to look at
your watch a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch.
I want to
see how they look together.”
Jim sat
down and smiled.
said he, “let’s put our Christmas gifts away and keep them
a while.
They’re too nice to use now. I sold the watch to get the money
to buy the
combs. And now I think we should have our dinner.” ( The Gift of the Magi, O.

The Gift of the Magi, A short story by O. Henry
presents a very ironic ending to a story. In the story, a poor love couples
struggles to buy each other a Christmas gift. The women, Della, cuts her hair
to buy Jim a watchband, but ironically Jim on the other hand, sells his watch
to buy Della a comb for long hair. The couples both sells their prized
possession to buy each other a gift. This short story is an example of
situational irony, because both Della and Jim had an opposite outcome at the
end. The ironic tone helps the readers understand the both point of view
about each other.





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