Datas obtained from the study is illustrated in this chapter harmonizing to the aims of the thesis. The information gathered were inputted in SPSS 16.0 and the descriptive statistics method was therefore used to analyze and give a consistent presentation of the informations obtained through pie charts, saloon charts among others.
However out of the 100 participants in the sample, merely 82 answered the questionnaire which represents a response rate of 82 % which is deemed adequate to warrant the survey.
For analysis intents, the responses were divided into five subdivisions:
Section 4.1: Features of the respondents
Section 4.2: Awareness of Accounting Ethical motives
Section 4.3: Importance of Accounting Ethical motives
Section 4.4: Execution of Accounting Ethical motives
Section 4.5: The restrictions of the survey
4.1: Features of Respondents
Questionnaires were administered to 50 different administrations and simply 44 of them responded positively. The figure of questionnaires sent by electronic mail was 20, hardly 7 replied and within the 80 questionnaires distributed personally merely 75 handled it back.
For farther analysis, the respondents were divided by their gender features. Out of the 82 respondents, 44 are males and 38 females.
Figure 2: Pie chart exemplifying the gender feature of the 82 respondents
The external cogency involves the extent to which the consequences obtained from a little sample group can be generalised to do anticipations about the full population. The most recent study done by the Central Statistics Office ( CSO ) on gender statistics was in July 2009 and it had shown that there were 16700 adult females more than work forces. Out of 1,275,000 of the entire population, there were 645,850 adult females against 629,150 work forces. Hence the sample seems to be misrepresentative of the population since there are more adult females than work forces in Mauritius. However there are a lesser proportion of adult females in the work force than work forces i.e. 43 % for adult females and 76 % for work forces. Therefore based on these figures the sample is deemed representative of the working population, where figure of work forces is greater than figure of adult females.
Furthermore male and female can be classified harmonizing to their age group. It is illustrated in the saloon chart below where there is a higher response rate from people aged between 25 and 34 and lesser response rate from those aged 35 and supra.
Figure 3: Bar Chart demoing the figure of respondents for each age group
4.2: Awareness of Accounting Ethical motives
The intent of inquiries 1 and 2 was to find whether Mauritians were cognizant of the footings “ moralss ” in general and “ Accounting moralss ” . Most of them i.e. 45.12 % of the respondents considered moralss as being based on rules and merely 26.83 % associated moralss to morality. This shows that harmonizing to them, Ethical motives is largely based on moral values and rules about what is viewed as right or incorrect beliefs with regard to basicss.
Furthermore it was found that 79 respondents knew the term “ Accounting Ethics ” which represents a per centum of 96.3 % which clearly indicates that accounting moralss forms portion of the accounting universe since the construct is known by more than half of the respondents. However the “ No ” response rate is of 3.7 % , possibly it can be remedied through more airing of information about accounting moralss through seminars and workshops or more academic diaries on the topic.
Awareness of the term “ Accounting Ethics ” * Gender Cross tabular matter
Awareness of the
term “ Accounting Ethical motives ”
However the cognition of accounting moralss was independent of gender or even age groups as shown in the tabular arraies since they were all aware of the term.
Awareness of the term “ Accounting Ethics ” * Age group Cross tabular matter
55 and above
Awareness of the term Accounting Ethical motives
The chief medium of consciousness was at workplace ( a per centum of 35.80 % ) , the 2nd most popular is through magazines and newspapers. On the other manus, some respondents mentioned that they came across the term accounting moralss and its major facets through surveies for illustration ACCA which implies that preparation and instruction sing accounting moralss proved to be a good agency to sensitize comptrollers about its importance.
Overall it can be noted that the grade of consciousness of Mauritanian people about Accounting Ethics is sufficient for a underdeveloped state.
Section 4.3: Importance of Accounting Ethical motives
Questions 4 and 5 were set in order to happen out the grade of importance that people attached to Ethical motives in accounting internationally every bit good as locally.
The respondents were asked how they consider accounting moralss in today ‘s universe. About 49 respondents see it as being really of import and merely 4 respondents see it as holding least importance. On the other, approximately 70.73 % of the respondents considered accounting moralss as a major concern in Mauritius.
But it shall be noted that accounting moralss has been prevailing since a long period of clip but cipher got its importance up to the aftermath of major corporate dirts. It is deserving indicating out that accounting patterns should be conducted accurately and ethically as it promotes the flow of concern. Furthermore it is a fact that concern and fiscal wellbeing of every administration are at interest, hence considerable unity and ethical behavior should be utilised in accounting. Corporate universe is non merely about doing money, in effect, accounting moralss helps to pull off appropriate concern histories and aid to forestall traversing the bottom line that do exists to procure clients and investors who put money in the company.
H0: Percept of respondents towards the importance of accounting moralss depends on gender
H1: Percept of respondents towards the importance of accounting moralss is independent of gender.
For this purpose the independent- sample T- trial was used.
Table 5 Group Statistics
Std. Error Mean
Degree of Importance
Therefore the rule behind this trial was to find the important difference between males ( blue coloring material ) and females ( ruddy coloring material )
When proving for the difference between two population agencies, we have to prove for equality of
Population discrepancies foremost ( by utilizing the F-test ) and moreover to hold a expression at the sig. Value under independent sample trial
Levene ‘s Test for Equality of Discrepancies
Degree of Importance of Acc Ethical motives:
Equal discrepancies assumed
Here the sig. Value under the levene ‘s Test for equality for discrepancies is 0.465.
If p & gt ; 0.05, we assume that the population discrepancies are equal.
If p & lt ; 0.05, we assume that the population discrepancies are non equal.
Therefore 0.465 is greater than 0.05, it implies that the population discrepancies are equal
Independent Samples Test
Sig. ( 2-tailed )
Degree of Importance:
Equality discrepancies assumed
Equality variances non assumed
A similar regulation applies nevertheless this clip by sing the population means:
If p & gt ; 0.05, we conclude that the population agencies could be equal.
If p & lt ; 0.05, we assume that the population agencies are non equal.
From the above tabular array it can be noted that the Sig.value is 0.49 which implies that the agencies for males and females is non important. Therefore it can be assumed that males and females attach same importance towards moralss in accounting and it can be clearly observed in the tabular array below.
Table 5.3 Degree of Importance * Gender Cross tabular matter
Degree of Importance
Of small importance
Furthermore respondents were interrogated about whether there is sufficient information about the significance of moralss for comptrollers, 45 respondents answered No to 37 who replied yes. Indeed it can be observed that in Mauritius apart from surveies, comptrollers are non plenty sensitise about the impact of moralss on their work. Even though large dirts arouse because of deficiency of professional moralss, anything has been put in topographic point to truly work out the job. As a consequence respondents were questioned about what should be done to distribute the information and sensitise comptrollers about the importance of moralss. Most of them replied through:
Talks/ Seminars/ Workshops
Mauritius Institute for professional Accountants ( MIPA ) should organize preparation Sessionss for comptrollers on the capable affair.
In add-on a list of fraud instances were given to respondents and they were asked to choose the instances that they have of all time heard about. It is to be noted that the two local instances i.e. MCB/NPF and Air Mauritius were the most indentified instances. Likewise they were asked their personal position about the motivations behind these were deceitful activities. Most of the respondents identified greed for money and deficiency of moralss as being the chief causes of the mentioned fraud instances.
Figure 4: Bar chart demoing the causes of fraud harmonizing to the respondents
Furthermore the questionnaire looked over what people think about the most indispensable character traits that a good comptroller should possess to finally indicate out whether moralss is an of import facets or non.
It can be seen from the diagram that being ethical and full of unity followed by professional, precise and punctilious are the most indispensable character traits in the accounting profession. However some respondents besides pointed out that possibly being cunning and smart at times is non that unethical.
With regard to the above figures, it can be viewed that ethical behavior of comptrollers is non an optional supernumerary ; it is an of import constituent of being professional and cardinal to the position and credibleness of the accounting profession. Therefore inquiries 9 ( a ) to 10 ( B ) were designed to obtain people ‘s sentiment refering gender and instruction holding an impact or non on ethical logical thinking.
As shown in the pie chart, 57 respondents ( a per centum of 70 % ) answered yes when asked whether gender have an influence on ethical opinions However 56 % of them considered female as holding more ethical logical thinking compared to male and ( 44 % ) the other manner unit of ammunition. It can still be noted that there is no big disparity among the two seeing that in concern universe, administration ‘s aim is to maximize net incomes while understating costs and this creates a competitory atmosphere.Nowadays adult females have an increased desire to accomplish competitory success and hence it provides the plausible ground why in the close hereafter there would be likely any important difference between males and females ethical logical thinking.
Furthermore the analysis has been extended to measure whether instruction has an impact on moralss. The figure below depicts how many respondents agree that human existences are non born with unconditioned ethical logical thinking.
Figure 7: The figure of respondents who agree that human existences are non born with unconditioned ethical logical thinking
As a consequences, 63 respondents agreed with the statement as opposed to 19 who do non. The 2nd portion of the inquiry was designed to obtain respondents ‘ position on whether moralss can be learned. Out of the 82 respondents a per centum of 67.07 % answered yes. For case adding accounting moralss in University course of study or any third classs has been a agency to do future comptrollers cognizant of what constitutes accounting moralss, their attachment to the codification of moralss and the ethical quandary that they will subsequently on face in the class of their responsibility. However one respondent who was against the fact that moralss can be learned, argued that “ Being aware of it does non intend that they will follow to it ” . Therefore more accent should be placed on the fact that moralss foremost comes from the single degree, as in the terminal it is chiefly a affair of pick i.e to be or non to be ethical.
Section 4.4: Execution of Accounting Ethical motives
Section B of the questionnaire was largely composed of inquiries based on the execution of moralss in the accounting profession.
Accountants have to detect and follow with the ethical demands of the codification set by their profession yet when inquiring the respondents if they comply to the codification, 78 % answered ever, 20 % yes but seldom and merely 2 % replied no which indicates that even if the codification do exists there is still a minority that does non adhere to it.
On the other manus, of the 82 respondents, 79 considered holding an internal codification of moralss can assist towards bettering ethical behavior and they were besides asked about what can be done to ease the execution of accounting moralss in an administration and to guarantee their conformity. The respondents had considered including judicial admissions sing the codification in any understandings or engaging contracts is the most effectual manner. For illustration harmonizing to the Pricewaterhouse Coopers Mauritius transparence Report, 2010, PWC Management proctors conformity with these duties by the same manner. “ Upon hiring or entree all staffs and spouses of PWC Mauritius are provided with a transcript of the planetary PWC codification of behavior. They are expected to populate by the values expressed in the codification in the class of their professional callings. ”
Then they were asked if they know administrations holding their ain codification of moralss. Most of them mentioned the “ Large Five ” companies such as PricewaterHouse Coopers and the other administrations mentioned were as follows:
Rogers Co. Ltd, Swan Insurance, MCB, MRA, IBL, Shell, Sicom and Air Mauritius.
They were besides questioned on whether they had of all time been confronted with an ethical quandary at any clip in their calling and merely 21.95 % of the respondents answered yes. However ethical quandary in accounting are common and it is a error to presume that a professional may ne’er confront any ethical quandary throughout its calling. Harmonizing to them the most of import issues that might be faced by comptrollers in their work are the deceitful activities of their administration with a mean of 2.68 and net incomes direction ( cooking the books exercising ) with a mean of 2.63 followed by loss of objectiveness, struggle of involvements and direction ‘s force per unit area.
Furthermore they were asked if they consider corporate administration as an of import issue with respects to direction force per unit area or bad corporate administration which leads to corporate failure and 80 respondents ( per centum of 97.56 % ) answered yes. Likewise there was a little scenario which was set to look at the respondents ‘ethical opinions, inquiring them how they would respond whenever their foreman requires from them to pull strings figures or conceal leery traffics and wages for their silence. Most of them said that they will reject the offer, whistle blow and resign if there are no other options.
In fact in the IFAC codification of moralss, there is a subdivision which stipulates that whenever comptrollers face such ethical quandaries, they should see the qualitative every bit good as quantitative nature of the issue and to see whether it goes against the cardinal rules of the codification and if the instance therefore the accountant shall vacate is. As a decision, the respondents would hold seemingly taken the right determination in they were in such state of affairs and this proved their conformity with the Code.
Since it is frequently found that whenever there are fraud instances or corporate failures, comptrollers are pinpointed as being the perpetrators, a inquiry was set to garner the sentiment of the respondents about this issue and it was summarised as follows:
Person has to have on the chapeau therefore comptrollers are considered as the whipping boies.
Wholly defeated and frustrated
Accountancy profession get defamed because of certain dishonest and unethical individuals.
They should non be to the full blamed since they might hold been pressurised. Bearing in head that comptrollers are the one executing fiscal coverage and being apt of misreporting or pull stringsing figures nevertheless it is the direction who gives their mark off and therefore they should besides be blamed.
Disagree since these instances of fraud may be due to weak internal control systems or direction schemes or can comes from anyplace in the administration.
Consequently holding considered that corporate administration is an indispensable issue, the respondents were asked if they agree with this statement “ The ethical clime of an administration reflects the attitude that employees follow ” . From the sample 73 respondents answered “ Yes ” and merely 9 answered “ No ” . The grounds were summarised as follows:
Those who answered “ Yes ” set frontward these grounds:
The mentality ( enterprise civilization ) of the administration reflects the mentality of its employees i.e. what comes above flows through the administration.
Company which topographic point accent on moralss would happen its employees much more concern about moralss and would promote them to move in an ethical manner.
If top direction give the good illustration, subsidiaries will certainly follow.
Employees will act harmonizing to the clime that prevails in the work environment
Most employees act s requested by the administration
Employees reflect the mission/vision of the administration
Employees tend to follow the tendency
Those who answered “ No ” argued that:
Any administration may miss of moralss while its employees might non.
Even though the administration plays an of import function in keeping the ethical values, employees may still be tempted to set about unethical activities.
It is the employees which made up the administration therefore it the employee ‘s moral values which determine the ethical clime of an administration.
Peoples besides have a pick when it comes to ethical opinions.
Human existences are non like machines that one time you give instructions it will follow.
Additionally Question 24 was intended to hold the respondents ‘ perceptual experience on whether the execution of more terrible ordinances can antagonize fraud and 46 of them which represent a per centum of 56.10 % replied no. Harmonizing to them, there are other ways which might be more appropriate and effectual to discourage fraud since regulations and ordinances are at that place but people still go against it so what is the intent of more terrible ordinances if it will ensue to the same thing. Therefore they were asked if the undermentioned listed enterprises might be good and the agencies were tabulated as follows:
Good Corporate Administration
High quality internal control
Proactive Audit Fraud
Implement an Internal codification of moralss
Compulsory class for employees about moralss
Table 6: Showing the average value of enterprises that respondents see good to discourage fraud
It can be observed that mandatory class about moralss and implementing codification of moralss yield higher agencies which indicates that the respondents found it as the most effectual ways to discourage fraud. As doing people more cognizant of what constitutes moralss i.e. what is right or incorrect might hold an impact of their manner of thought.
Furthermore such as the study done by IFAC in 2007, the respondents were besides asked to give their positions by choosing whether they: “ strongly differ ” , “ disagreed ” , “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” about possible statements which contribute to ethical failures. The consequences are shown in the tabular array below
Factors taking to ethical failure
Failure to keep objectiveness and independency
Inappropriate professional opinion
Lack of ethical sensitiveness
Improper leading and ill-culture
Failure to defy protagonism menaces
Lack of competency
Lack of organizational or peer support
Lack of professional organic structure support
Table 7: Factors taking to ethical failure
As opposed to the study done by IFAC where respondents viewed self-interest and failure to keep objectiveness most prone to do ethical failure, Mauritanian people consider deficiency of organizational support and deficiency of competency as being the chief factors lending to ethical failure. It can therefore be suggested that other establishments such as MIPA or the local subdivision of ACCA should be established in order to supply greater support to the accounting profession.