Music 2003). There is always question of

Music Futures is a method with learning and teaching. Music making in school is a new mindset that takes informal learning approaches into the more formal setting of schools. We often uses these term of formal and informal through the musical futures. There are many countries have tried to close the gap between the two musical worlds which is study music culture in the tutorial room, as well as study music culture off campus. Nevertheless, yet the various popular music represent former m, now it makes up an important part of educational programs content. For the musician from informal learning practice who make this music have not been generally accepted or adopted as learning and teaching methods in the classroom. It has in that essential sense stayed unbridged among two…
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The Ocean islands, each current and extinct.

The administrative and economic capital of Réunion, Saint-Denis is additionally a city of Art and History with a fashionable heritage, not solely fashionable lovers of culture and design however additionally with those that fancy town walks. Enriched by a harmonious mix of cultures and religions, Réunion's body centre enjoys a pleasing location on the shores of the Indian Ocean, with its several attractions unfold on the north coast of the island. among the municipality's territory there ar sixty roughly listed or registered historic monuments!  Near Rue American state Paris lies the splendid Jardin American state l'État park, a listed Historic Monument that you'll fancy on a practice the charming gardens. based within the last half of the eighteenth century by the French archipelago Company to use as associate adaptation garden, this…
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The workers, and native populations and those

The Western world has seen a tidal wave of populist sentiment that has swept through Europe and culminated in the shocking victory of Donald Trump in the 2016 US presidential election. What is most troubling about these political movements is that they are led mainly by right-wing politicians who are intent on seeding discord and fear to gain power. The question is: what is driving this phenomenon, and why has right-wing populist ideology become a rallying call for so many? Many economists and scholars argue that the culprit is globalization.   Globalization is 'commonly understood to describe the increasing flow of goods, services, capital, technology, information, ideas and labour at the global level, driven by liberalization policies and technological change' (Annan, 2002). Over the last few decades, there has been…
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In dawns and brightens their skies. In

In the opening lines if Yamanoue's Man'y?sh? V: 806-807poem, the speaker conveys he indulges in memories of his children whenever he eats melons or chestnuts. Sights of his children keep quivering between his eyes making him restless and depriving him from sleep and inner peace. Then he asks himself rhetorically how important his children are to him, he then assures that one's child is more worthy than any treasure. The main theme in the poem is to show the longing of the speaker to his children and use of metaphoric image to compare them to a treasure (gold, silver and jewels). In Man'y?sh? V: 909-911 is a poem of yearning for his son we see the speaker still emphasizing on how important his son is by comparing him to a…
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Preliminary.Statement.for.Company.&.CorporationThe.word.”COMPANY”.is.derived.from.the.Latin.word.Com.mean.with/together.&.Panis.mean.bread..For.sake.of.understanding.we.say.that.itis.the.group.of.like-minded.persons.who.sit.together.for.earning.a.profit..In.past,.merchants.took.edge.of.festivals,.parties.&.gatherings.to.discuss.their.business.matters.seriously..Nowadays,.these.matters.of.profit.or.losebecome.formal.and.hence.cannot.be.discussed.in.gatherings…Therefore,.the.company.form.of.organizations.is.essential.and.need.which.we.have.today.It.denotes,.So,.company.denotes.an.association.of.likeminded.persons.formed.for.the.purpose.of.carrying.on.some.business.Company.is.called.a.body.corporate.because.the.persons.forming.it.made.him.one.body.by.incorporating.it.according.to.the.law.and.cover.it.with.legal.personality..The.word.”CORPORATION”.is.derived.from.the.Latin.term.Corpus.which.means.”body”…Accordingly,.corporation.is.a.legal.personincorporated.by.a.process.which.is.against.the.rules.of.natural.birth..It.is,.for.this.reason,.sometimes.called.artificial.legal.person.An.incorporated.company.owes.its.existence.either.to.a.special.Act.of.Parliament.or.to.Company.Law..Public.corporationshave.been.brought.into.existence.through.special.Acts.of.Parliament.like.Associated.Press.of.Pakistan.and.Civil.Aviation.Authority.etc..Whereas.companies.like.Attock.Refinery.Ltd..have.been.formed.under.the.Company.law.i.e..Companies.Act.2017.What.is.Company?In.the.legal.sense,.a.company.is.an.association.of.both.natural.and.artificial.persons.and.is.incorporated.under.the.existing.law.of.a.country..In.terms.of.theIn.common.law,.a.company.is.a.”legal.person.and.entity”.separate.from.its.members..Company.is.capable.of.surviving.its.life.other.thanthe.lives.of.its.members.Lord.Justice.Lindley.has.defined.a.company.as.”An.association.of.many.persons.who.contribute.money.or.money’s.worth.to.a.common.stock.and.employs.it.in.some.trade.or.business.and.who.share.the.profit.and.loss.arising.therefrom.The.persons.who.contributed.in.it.or.form.it,.or.to.whom.it.belongs,.are.members..The.proportion.of.capital.to.which.each.member.isentitled.is.his.share….According.to.the.best.of.my.knowledge,.I.defined.company.asAn.artificial.person.which.is.invisible,.intangible,.created.by.or.under.the.law.of.land.with.a.discrete.legal.entity,.perpetual.succession.and.a.common.seal..It.is.economic.and.administrative.structure.run.by.professional.managers.who.hire.capital.from.the.investors.Types.of.CompaniesDistinct.features.of.CompanySeparate.legal.entityAfter.incorporation,.a.company.becomes.a.separate.legal.entity.as.compared.to.its.members..The.company.is.different.from.its.members.in.law..It.has.its.own.name,.seal,.assets.and.liabilities.which.are.separate.from.its.members.Case.Law:.The.decision.of.the.case.in.Calcutta.High.Courtrecognized.the.principle.of.separate.legal.entity.even.much.earlier.than.the.decision.in.Salomon.v..Salomon.&.Co..Ltd..case.Limited.liabilityThe.company,.being.a.separate.person,.is.the.owner.of.its.assets.and.bound.by.its.liabilities.Members.are.neither.the.owners.of.the.company’s.undertakings,.nor.liable.for.its.debts.Perpetual.successionAn.incorporated.company.never.dies,.except.when.it.is.wound.up.as.per.law.or.the.task.for.which.it.was.formed.has.been.completed..Death.or.insolvency.of.members.does.not.affect.the.existence.of.the.company.Separate.propertyA.company.being.a.legal.person.and.entirely.distinct.from.its.members,.is.capable.of.owning,.enjoying.and.disposing.of.property.in.its.own.name.Transfer.of.sharesThe.capital.of.a.company.is.divided.into.parts,.called.shares..The.shares.are.said.to.be.movable.property.and,.subject.to.certain.conditions,.freely.transferable,.so.that.no.shareholder.is.permanently.or.necessarily.wedded.to.a.company..Common.sealA.company.is.an.artificial.person.&.contracts.made.by.him.must.be.under.the.seal.of.a.company.which.is.the.official.signature.of.the.company..The.name.of.company.must.be.engraved.on.the.common.seal..Any.document.not.bearing.the.seal.of.the.company.may.not.be.accepted.as.authentic.and.have.no.legal.force.Sue.and.be.suedA.company.can.sue.and.be.sued.in.its.own.name..To.sue.means.to.institute.legal.Proceedings.against.a.person.or.to.bring.a.suit.in.a.court.of.law..Similarly,.the.company.may.bring.an.action.against.anyone.in.its.own.name;.even.sue.one.of.its.own.members.Separate.managementA.company.is.managed.and.administered.by.the.board.of.directors..The.shareholders.are.simply.the.holders.of.the.shares.in.the.company.and.needed.not.be.necessarily.the.managers.of.the.company.What.is.Corporation?The.word.”CORPORATION”.is.derived.from.the.Latin.term.Corpus.which.means.”body”…Accordingly,.corporation.is.a.legal.person.created.by.a.process.other.than.natural.birth..It.is,.for.this.reason,.sometimes.called.artificial.legal.person..An.incorporated.company.owes.its.existence.either.to.a.special.Act.of.Parliament.or.to.Company.Law..In.the.legal.sense,.a.company.is.an.association.of.both.natural.and.artificial.persons.and.is.incorporated.under.the.existing.law.of.a.country.According.to.the.best.of.my.knowledge,.I.defined.corporation.asAn.association.of.persons.incorporated.according.to.the.relevant.law.and.clothed.with.legal.personality.separate.from.the.persons.constituting.it.is.known.as.corporation.Essence.of.corporationThe.Indian.Supreme.Court.laid.down.the.5.essence.of.corporation.in.a.famous.Characteristics.of.CorporationThe.five.core.structural.characteristics.of.the.business.corporation.are:-Legal.personalityLimited.liabilityTransferable.sharesCentralized.management.under.a.board.structureShared.ownership.by.contributors.of.capitalAs.we.can.study.these.characteristics.above.in.distinct.features.of.companythoroughly.so.there.is.no.such.need.to.explain.them.Saloman.Vs..Saloman.1897.A.C..22Saloman.had.a.sole.proprietor.business.of.a.leather.merchant..He.formed.a.company.on.his.name.Saloman&.Co..LTD..He.himself,.his.wife,.daughter.and.4.sons.are.members.of.this.company..The.wife,.daughter.and.4.sons.have.a.one.share.each..Saloman.sold.his.sole.proprietor.business.to.his.company.Saloman&.Co..LTD..&.obtained.20.thousand.shares.and.10.thousand.debentures..Debentures.were.secured.as.the.assets.of.Company.As.Saloman.act.as.director.of.his.company.so.he.borrowed.a.round.about.£6000.from.outside.creditors.on.which.security.is.not.given.to.them..After.company.suffered.from.heavy.losses.and.became.bankrupt..The.asset.of.Company.was.£7000.but.the.liabilities.are.nearly.£16000..As.a.result.company.was.wound.up.and.the.question.arose.that.whether.the.debentures.secured.on.assets.issued.to.Salomon.will.get.preference.against.the.other.debt.of.company..The.argument.brought.by.creditors.was.that.Salomon.and.Salomon.&.Co..LTD.is.same.person.so.he.should.be.payed.after.the.payment.of.outside.debtors.In.this.situation.court.held.that.Salomon.and.Salomon.&.Co..LTD.are.2.different.persons.and.Salomon.can.claim.to.be.a.secured.creditor.for.his.debentures..Therefore.proceeds.of.the.assets.should.be.first.allocated.to.settle.the.debentures.of.Salomon.Different.rules.established.in.Salomon.caseFollowing.are.the.rules.settled.in.Salomon.case.Recognition.of.family.owned.companies.Recognition.of.principal.of.separate.legal.entity.Recognition.of.members.limited.liability.Recognition.of.a.loan.to.company.given.by.a.member.of.it.Corporate.VeilThe.doctrine.in.Salomon’s.Case.creates.”thin.wafer.clothing”.on.the.company.due.to.which.no.one.can.access.that.what.&.who.is.behind.the.curtain.of.company.This.curtain.on.company.is.well.known.as.Veil.on.the.corporation.of.Company.OR.Veil.of.corporation..But.there.are.exceptions.under.which.court.ordered.to.break.this.veil.of.incorporation.Following.are.some.instances.when.court.pierces.this.veil.Company.is.agency.of.another.company./.Alter.ego.doctrineFraudSingle.economic.unitDetermination.of.residence.for.taxationDanger.to.national.security.and.many.more.Corporate.Veil.and.its.lifting:-Starting.with.a.juristic.perspective,.a.company.is.a.lawful.representative.unique.from.its.parts..It.is.held.in.famous.case.of.Salomon.v..Salomon.and.co..Ltd..(1897).discussed.above..This.standard.give.birth.a.principal.of.’Veil.on.incorporation’.which.create.a.narrative.cover.between.the.company..members..The.courts.by.and.large.think.about.themselves.certain.by.this.principal..But.in.certain.circumstances,.the.court.will.penetrate.the.corporate.cover.alternately.or.disregard.the.corporate.veil.to.reach.at.those.representatives.who.are.behind.this.cover.and.so.uncover.the.genuine.structure.of.company..The.justification.behind.this.is.likely.that.the.law.won’t.permit.the.corporate.structure.to.misused.and.make.the.society.abused.In.Littlewoods.Mail.Order.Stores.Ltd.V..Inland.Revenue.Comrs..Lord.Denning.stated:”The.doctrine.laid.down.in.Salomon.v..Salomon.and.Co.Ltd,.has.to.be.watched.very.carefully..It.has.often.been.supposed.to.cast.a.veil.over.the.personality.of.a.limited.liability.company.through.which.the.Courts.cannot.see..But,.that.is.not.true..The.Courts.can.and.often.do.draw.aside.the.veil..They.can.and.often.do,.pull.off.the.mask..They.look.to.see.what.really.lies.behind”.Comprehensively.there.are.two.sorts.for.procurements.for.the.lifting.of.the.corporate.veil..Legal.procurements.OR.we.say.judicial.provisions..Judicial.provisions.discussed.about.fraud,.character.of.company,.protection.of.revenue,.single.economic.entity..Same.time.statutory.procurements.or.provisions.discussed.about.decrease.in.membership,.Misdescription.of.name,.fake.conduct.of.business,.Failure.to.refund.application.money.and.so.on.Judicial.lifting.of.corporateveil:-Since.the.decision.in.Salomon.v…Salomon.&.Co..Ltd..(1897),.generally.courts.are.very.reluctant.and.cautious.to.lift.the.corporate.veilto.see.the.real.personalities.behind.the.scene..For.many.years.the.judiciary.swings.his.face.from.strict.principles.of.the.Salomon,.Lee.&MacCuara.case.but.in.famous.case.of.United.States.V..Milwaukee.Refrigerator.Co.,.it.was.summed.up.that:”A.corporation.will.be.looked.upon.as.a.legal.entity.as.a.general.rule.but.when.the.tool.of.legal.entity.is.used.to.defeat.public.convenience,.justify.wrong,.protect.fraud.or.defend.crime,.the.law.will.regard.the.corporation.as.an.association.of.persons.which.is.opposite.which.held.in.Salomon,.Lee.&MacCuara.case.”Following.are.the.situations.when.court.thinks.that.it.deems.fit.to.uplift.the.corporate.veil.over.the.company:-Fraud,.duplicity.or.inappropriate.Conduct:-Where.the.corporate.veil.has.been.used.for.commission.of.fraud.or.improper.conduct..In.such.a.situation,.Courts.have.lifted.the.veil.and.looked.at.the.realities.of.the.situation.The.Courts.won’t.permit.the.Salomon.vital.will.utilized.as.a.motor.for.cheating..Courts.will.lift.the.veil.on.the.registered.company.to.make.sure.that.corporation.prevents.to.use.device.of.fraudulent.purposes.or.evading.a.contractual.obligation.or.liability.For.Benefit.Of.Revenue:-The.Court.has.the.power.to.checkout.thecompany.if.it.is.used.for.the.purpose.of.tax.evasion.or.prevents.from.his.tax.obligations..Where.it.was.found.that.the.sole.purpose.for.which.the.company.was.formed.was.to.evade.taxes.the.Court.will.ignore.the.concept.of.separate.entity.and.make.the.individuals.concerned.liable.to.pay.the.taxes.which.they.would.have.paid.but.for.the.formation.of.the.company.Case.LawBrief.facts.of.the.case.are.that.the.assesse.might.have.been.a.rich.wealthy.man.enjoying.immense.profit.and.investment.wage..He.shaped.four.private.companies.and.suitably.for.each.should.hold.a.block.of.investment.and.agenize.to.it..Money.accepted.might.have.been.credited.in.the.accounts.of.the.particular.company.yet.the.agency.gave.back.the.amount.to.him.as.a.pretended.loan..This.way.he.divided.his.income.into.four.parts.in.a.bid.to.reduce.his.tax.liability.Foe/Enemy.Character:-A.company.might.an.adversary.character.when.persons.of.foe.characters.accepted.control.of.its.undertakings.over.a.foe.nation..In.such.a.case,.court.might.analyze.the.character.of.persons.in.genuine.control.of.the.company,.and.announce.the.company.to.a.chance.to.be.an.enemy.agency.Company.avoiding.lawful.Obligations:-.The.place.the.utilization.of.a.consolidated.company.is,.no.doubt.aggravated.will.evade.legitimate.obligations,.the.court.might.neglect.those.legitimate.personalities.of.the.particular.company.and.proceed.on.the.supposition.that.no.company.existed.Abusedcorporate.personality&.public.interests:-Where.it.is.found.that.a.company.has.abused.itscorporate.personality.for.an.unjust.and.inequitable.purpose,.the.court.would.not.hesitate.to.lift.the.corporate.veil..Further,.the.corporate.veil.could.belifted..when..acts..of..a..corporation..are..allegedly..opposed..to..justice,..convenience..and..interests..of.revenue.or.workmen.or.are.against.public.interest.SINGLE.ECONOMIC.ENTITY:-Sometimes.in.the.case.of.group.of.enterprises.the.Salomon.principal.may.not.be.adhered.to.and.the.Court.may.lift.the.veil.in.order.to.look.at.the.economic.realities.of.the.group.itself.Statutory carrying on of the business in

Preliminary.Statement.for.Company.&.CorporationThe.word."COMPANY".is.derived.from.the.Latin.word.Com.mean.with/together.&.Panis.mean.bread..For.sake.of.understanding.we.say.that.itis.the.group.of.like-minded.persons.who.sit.together.for.earning.a.profit..In.past,.merchants.took.edge.of.festivals,.parties.&.gatherings.to.discuss.their.business.matters.seriously..Nowadays,.these.matters.of.profit.or.losebecome.formal.and.hence.cannot.be.discussed.in.gatherings...Therefore,.the.company.form.of.organizations.is.essential.and.need.which.we.have.today.It.denotes,.So,.company.denotes.an.association.of.likeminded.persons.formed.for.the.purpose.of.carrying.on.some.business.Company.is.called.a.body.corporate.because.the.persons.forming.it.made.him.one.body.by.incorporating.it.according.to.the.law.and.cover.it.with.legal.personality..The.word."CORPORATION".is.derived.from.the.Latin.term.Corpus.which.means."body"...Accordingly,.corporation.is.a.legal.personincorporated.by.a.process.which.is.against.the.rules.of.natural.birth..It.is,.for.this.reason,.sometimes.called.artificial.legal.person.An.incorporated.company.owes.its.existence.either.to.a.special.Act.of.Parliament.or.to.Company.Law..Public.corporationshave.been.brought.into.existence.through.special.Acts.of.Parliament.like.Associated.Press.of.Pakistan.and.Civil.Aviation.Authority.etc..Whereas.companies.like.Attock.Refinery.Ltd..have.been.formed.under.the.Company.law.i.e..Companies.Act.2017.What.is.Company?In.the.legal.sense,.a.company.is.an.association.of.both.natural.and.artificial.persons.and.is.incorporated.under.the.existing.law.of.a.country..In.terms.of.theIn.common.law,.a.company.is.a."legal.person.and.entity".separate.from.its.members..Company.is.capable.of.surviving.its.life.other.thanthe.lives.of.its.members.Lord.Justice.Lindley.has.defined.a.company.as."An.association.of.many.persons.who.contribute.money.or.money's.worth.to.a.common.stock.and.employs.it.in.some.trade.or.business.and.who.share.the.profit.and.loss.arising.therefrom.The.persons.who.contributed.in.it.or.form.it,.or.to.whom.it.belongs,.are.members..The.proportion.of.capital.to.which.each.member.isentitled.is.his.share….According.to.the.best.of.my.knowledge,.I.defined.company.asAn.artificial.person.which.is.invisible,.intangible,.created.by.or.under.the.law.of.land.with.a.discrete.legal.entity,.perpetual.succession.and.a.common.seal..It.is.economic.and.administrative.structure.run.by.professional.managers.who.hire.capital.from.the.investors.Types.of.CompaniesDistinct.features.of.CompanySeparate.legal.entityAfter.incorporation,.a.company.becomes.a.separate.legal.entity.as.compared.to.its.members..The.company.is.different.from.its.members.in.law..It.has.its.own.name,.seal,.assets.and.liabilities.which.are.separate.from.its.members.Case.Law:.The.decision.of.the.case.in.Calcutta.High.Courtrecognized.the.principle.of.separate.legal.entity.even.much.earlier.than.the.decision.in.Salomon.v..Salomon.&.Co..Ltd..case.Limited.liabilityThe.company,.being.a.separate.person,.is.the.owner.of.its.assets.and.bound.by.its.liabilities.Members.are.neither.the.owners.of.the.company's.undertakings,.nor.liable.for.its.debts.Perpetual.successionAn.incorporated.company.never.dies,.except.when.it.is.wound.up.as.per.law.or.the.task.for.which.it.was.formed.has.been.completed..Death.or.insolvency.of.members.does.not.affect.the.existence.of.the.company.Separate.propertyA.company.being.a.legal.person.and.entirely.distinct.from.its.members,.is.capable.of.owning,.enjoying.and.disposing.of.property.in.its.own.name.Transfer.of.sharesThe.capital.of.a.company.is.divided.into.parts,.called.shares..The.shares.are.said.to.be.movable.property.and,.subject.to.certain.conditions,.freely.transferable,.so.that.no.shareholder.is.permanently.or.necessarily.wedded.to.a.company..Common.sealA.company.is.an.artificial.person.&.contracts.made.by.him.must.be.under.the.seal.of.a.company.which.is.the.official.signature.of.the.company..The.name.of.company.must.be.engraved.on.the.common.seal..Any.document.not.bearing.the.seal.of.the.company.may.not.be.accepted.as.authentic.and.have.no.legal.force.Sue.and.be.suedA.company.can.sue.and.be.sued.in.its.own.name..To.sue.means.to.institute.legal.Proceedings.against.a.person.or.to.bring.a.suit.in.a.court.of.law..Similarly,.the.company.may.bring.an.action.against.anyone.in.its.own.name;.even.sue.one.of.its.own.members.Separate.managementA.company.is.managed.and.administered.by.the.board.of.directors..The.shareholders.are.simply.the.holders.of.the.shares.in.the.company.and.needed.not.be.necessarily.the.managers.of.the.company.What.is.Corporation?The.word."CORPORATION".is.derived.from.the.Latin.term.Corpus.which.means."body"...Accordingly,.corporation.is.a.legal.person.created.by.a.process.other.than.natural.birth..It.is,.for.this.reason,.sometimes.called.artificial.legal.person..An.incorporated.company.owes.its.existence.either.to.a.special.Act.of.Parliament.or.to.Company.Law..In.the.legal.sense,.a.company.is.an.association.of.both.natural.and.artificial.persons.and.is.incorporated.under.the.existing.law.of.a.country.According.to.the.best.of.my.knowledge,.I.defined.corporation.asAn.association.of.persons.incorporated.according.to.the.relevant.law.and.clothed.with.legal.personality.separate.from.the.persons.constituting.it.is.known.as.corporation.Essence.of.corporationThe.Indian.Supreme.Court.laid.down.the.5.essence.of.corporation.in.a.famous.Characteristics.of.CorporationThe.five.core.structural.characteristics.of.the.business.corporation.are:-Legal.personalityLimited.liabilityTransferable.sharesCentralized.management.under.a.board.structureShared.ownership.by.contributors.of.capitalAs.we.can.study.these.characteristics.above.in.distinct.features.of.companythoroughly.so.there.is.no.such.need.to.explain.them.Saloman.Vs..Saloman.1897.A.C..22Saloman.had.a.sole.proprietor.business.of.a.leather.merchant..He.formed.a.company.on.his.name.Saloman&.Co..LTD..He.himself,.his.wife,.daughter.and.4.sons.are.members.of.this.company..The.wife,.daughter.and.4.sons.have.a.one.share.each..Saloman.sold.his.sole.proprietor.business.to.his.company.Saloman&.Co..LTD..&.obtained.20.thousand.shares.and.10.thousand.debentures..Debentures.were.secured.as.the.assets.of.Company.As.Saloman.act.as.director.of.his.company.so.he.borrowed.a.round.about.£6000.from.outside.creditors.on.which.security.is.not.given.to.them..After.company.suffered.from.heavy.losses.and.became.bankrupt..The.asset.of.Company.was.£7000.but.the.liabilities.are.nearly.£16000..As.a.result.company.was.wound.up.and.the.question.arose.that.whether.the.debentures.secured.on.assets.issued.to.Salomon.will.get.preference.against.the.other.debt.of.company..The.argument.brought.by.creditors.was.that.Salomon.and.Salomon.&.Co..LTD.is.same.person.so.he.should.be.payed.after.the.payment.of.outside.debtors.In.this.situation.court.held.that.Salomon.and.Salomon.&.Co..LTD.are.2.different.persons.and.Salomon.can.claim.to.be.a.secured.creditor.for.his.debentures..Therefore.proceeds.of.the.assets.should.be.first.allocated.to.settle.the.debentures.of.Salomon.Different.rules.established.in.Salomon.caseFollowing.are.the.rules.settled.in.Salomon.case.Recognition.of.family.owned.companies.Recognition.of.principal.of.separate.legal.entity.Recognition.of.members.limited.liability.Recognition.of.a.loan.to.company.given.by.a.member.of.it.Corporate.VeilThe.doctrine.in.Salomon's.Case.creates."thin.wafer.clothing".on.the.company.due.to.which.no.one.can.access.that.what.&.who.is.behind.the.curtain.of.company.This.curtain.on.company.is.well.known.as.Veil.on.the.corporation.of.Company.OR.Veil.of.corporation..But.there.are.exceptions.under.which.court.ordered.to.break.this.veil.of.incorporation.Following.are.some.instances.when.court.pierces.this.veil.Company.is.agency.of.another.company./.Alter.ego.doctrineFraudSingle.economic.unitDetermination.of.residence.for.taxationDanger.to.national.security.and.many.more.Corporate.Veil.and.its.lifting:-Starting.with.a.juristic.perspective,.a.company.is.a.lawful.representative.unique.from.its.parts..It.is.held.in.famous.case.of.Salomon.v..Salomon.and.co..Ltd..(1897).discussed.above..This.standard.give.birth.a.principal.of.'Veil.on.incorporation'.which.create.a.narrative.cover.between.the.company..members..The.courts.by.and.large.think.about.themselves.certain.by.this.principal..But.in.certain.circumstances,.the.court.will.penetrate.the.corporate.cover.alternately.or.disregard.the.corporate.veil.to.reach.at.those.representatives.who.are.behind.this.cover.and.so.uncover.the.genuine.structure.of.company..The.justification.behind.this.is.likely.that.the.law.won't.permit.the.corporate.structure.to.misused.and.make.the.society.abused.In.Littlewoods.Mail.Order.Stores.Ltd.V..Inland.Revenue.Comrs..Lord.Denning.stated:"The.doctrine.laid.down.in.Salomon.v..Salomon.and.Co.Ltd,.has.to.be.watched.very.carefully..It.has.often.been.supposed.to.cast.a.veil.over.the.personality.of.a.limited.liability.company.through.which.the.Courts.cannot.see..But,.that.is.not.true..The.Courts.can.and.often.do.draw.aside.the.veil..They.can.and.often.do,.pull.off.the.mask..They.look.to.see.what.really.lies.behind".Comprehensively.there.are.two.sorts.for.procurements.for.the.lifting.of.the.corporate.veil..Legal.procurements.OR.we.say.judicial.provisions..Judicial.provisions.discussed.about.fraud,.character.of.company,.protection.of.revenue,.single.economic.entity..Same.time.statutory.procurements.or.provisions.discussed.about.decrease.in.membership,.Misdescription.of.name,.fake.conduct.of.business,.Failure.to.refund.application.money.and.so.on.Judicial.lifting.of.corporateveil:-Since.the.decision.in.Salomon.v...Salomon.&.Co..Ltd..(1897),.generally.courts.are.very.reluctant.and.cautious.to.lift.the.corporate.veilto.see.the.real.personalities.behind.the.scene..For.many.years.the.judiciary.swings.his.face.from.strict.principles.of.the.Salomon,.Lee.&MacCuara.case.but.in.famous.case.of.United.States.V..Milwaukee.Refrigerator.Co.,.it.was.summed.up.that:"A.corporation.will.be.looked.upon.as.a.legal.entity.as.a.general.rule.but.when.the.tool.of.legal.entity.is.used.to.defeat.public.convenience,.justify.wrong,.protect.fraud.or.defend.crime,.the.law.will.regard.the.corporation.as.an.association.of.persons.which.is.opposite.which.held.in.Salomon,.Lee.&MacCuara.case."Following.are.the.situations.when.court.thinks.that.it.deems.fit.to.uplift.the.corporate.veil.over.the.company:-Fraud,.duplicity.or.inappropriate.Conduct:-Where.the.corporate.veil.has.been.used.for.commission.of.fraud.or.improper.conduct..In.such.a.situation,.Courts.have.lifted.the.veil.and.looked.at.the.realities.of.the.situation.The.Courts.won't.permit.the.Salomon.vital.will.utilized.as.a.motor.for.cheating..Courts.will.lift.the.veil.on.the.registered.company.to.make.sure.that.corporation.prevents.to.use.device.of.fraudulent.purposes.or.evading.a.contractual.obligation.or.liability.For.Benefit.Of.Revenue:-The.Court.has.the.power.to.checkout.thecompany.if.it.is.used.for.the.purpose.of.tax.evasion.or.prevents.from.his.tax.obligations..Where.it.was.found.that.the.sole.purpose.for.which.the.company.was.formed.was.to.evade.taxes.the.Court.will.ignore.the.concept.of.separate.entity.and.make.the.individuals.concerned.liable.to.pay.the.taxes.which.they.would.have.paid.but.for.the.formation.of.the.company.Case.LawBrief.facts.of.the.case.are.that.the.assesse.might.have.been.a.rich.wealthy.man.enjoying.immense.profit.and.investment.wage..He.shaped.four.private.companies.and.suitably.for.each.should.hold.a.block.of.investment.and.agenize.to.it..Money.accepted.might.have.been.credited.in.the.accounts.of.the.particular.company.yet.the.agency.gave.back.the.amount.to.him.as.a.pretended.loan..This.way.he.divided.his.income.into.four.parts.in.a.bid.to.reduce.his.tax.liability.Foe/Enemy.Character:-A.company.might.an.adversary.character.when.persons.of.foe.characters.accepted.control.of.its.undertakings.over.a.foe.nation..In.such.a.case,.court.might.analyze.the.character.of.persons.in.genuine.control.of.the.company,.and.announce.the.company.to.a.chance.to.be.an.enemy.agency.Company.avoiding.lawful.Obligations:-.The.place.the.utilization.of.a.consolidated.company.is,.no.doubt.aggravated.will.evade.legitimate.obligations,.the.court.might.neglect.those.legitimate.personalities.of.the.particular.company.and.proceed.on.the.supposition.that.no.company.existed.Abusedcorporate.personality&.public.interests:-Where.it.is.found.that.a.company.has.abused.itscorporate.personality.for.an.unjust.and.inequitable.purpose,.the.court.would.not.hesitate.to.lift.the.corporate.veil..Further,.the.corporate.veil.could.belifted..when..acts..of..a..corporation..are..allegedly..opposed..to..justice,..convenience..and..interests..of.revenue.or.workmen.or.are.against.public.interest.SINGLE.ECONOMIC.ENTITY:-Sometimes.in.the.case.of.group.of.enterprises.the.Salomon.principal.may.not.be.adhered.to.and.the.Court.may.lift.the.veil.in.order.to.look.at.the.economic.realities.of.the.group.itself.Statutory lifting of corporateveil:-Following are the situations when statute permits that it deems fit to uplift the corporate veil over the company:-Reduction of number of members:-According to Sec 15& 301(e) of Pakistan Companies Act 2017, there is aliability of uplifting the corporate veil for carrying on business with less than three or, in the case of a private company, two members.A company may be wound up by the Court, if  the  number  of  members  is  reduced,  in  the  case  of  public company, below three and in the case of a private  company below two.Fraudulent Trading:-According to Sec 301(g)(i) & 398 of Pakistan Companies Act 2017,a company may be wound up by the Courtif the company is conceived or brought forth for, or is or has been carrying on, unlawful or…
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Privatization We will discuss in detail the

Privatization has been part of a crucial debate ever since Margaret thatcher took over the office in 1979. It has been the leading focus of British Conservative Party who were first to lay the roots of privatization in britain economic welfare.However , first we must discuss what is privatization. According to one of the most popular definitions ,  " The transfer of ownership, property or business from the government to the private sector is termed as privatization. The government ceases to be the owner of the entity or business." (economic times magazine/ 2004)Privatization is means to bring about more efficiency and stability to a business which has been objected to be lacked by many government run institutions.The profit oriented approach of the owners of the company leads to better standards…
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fuel is due to incomplete combustion of

fuel is reducing the dependency of fossil fuel 2.The fuel properties like density, viscosity, cetane number, calorific value and flash point are compared with pure diesel fuel. Flash point of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel, so biodiesel is good alternative fuel than diesel fuel and safer than biodiesel engine 3. The two-step transesteri?cation response from claiming waste oils toward using stoichiometric sums from claiming methanol and the necessary amounts about KOH, supplemented with those accurate add up of KOH to kill acridity. Both responses were completed in 30 min in the temperature go 40–60C Parameters for example, such that density, viscosity, water content, and energy content were investigated4. The concentration of carbon monoxide is decreases for the blends B20 and B100 for all loading conditions. thus biodiesel concentration increase, …
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TO: realized that there were 300,000 college

TO: Suny, Cuny, and Private Colleges FROM: Maylynn RosarioCC: Morrisville DATE: January 20, 2018SUBJECT: Rapes On CampusGood Evening, How is everyone doing today?      My name is Maylynn Rosario, I am a sophomore at Morrisville State College. I just want to talk about a recurring issue that seems to be happening on every campus worldwide. I feel that this topic should be dealt with the higher matter. Which is where you come in, as higher members of the college system I feel if I speak to you about the matter it would be able to be fixed. The problem that I am talking about is rape not only to females but also males. Do you know there is about  "673,000 women currently attending U.S. colleges and universities who have experienced rape at some…
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Financial literacy is more crucial than ever in today's world. It does not only affect individual well- being but also affect and create a great impact on a larger scale, the economic development and growth of an entire country.  Due to low level of financial literacy amongst citizens, governments from all over the world have expressed concerns. Financial crisis have demonstrated the potential magnitude of the consequences of a lack of financial literacy. Such lack of financial literacy has been known widely as an aggravating factor of financial crisis (Atkinson and Messy, 2010). There are various definitions of financial literacy. One of most used definition comes from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, International Network on Financial Education. According to OECD, INFE (2011), financial literacy is a combination of…
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Abstract— the edge operator and then can

Abstract— Facial expressions and emotions plays an important role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which delivers rich information about their mood. The "BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY" aims at creating computational machines that have sensory and perceptual abilities like those of human beings which enables the computer to gather information about humans and interact with them. This paper implements the detection of emotions (happy, sad, fear, surprised, anger, disgust) by taking in consideration the human eye expressions and by using emotion mouse. The emotion mouse obtains physiological data and emotional state of a person through the single touch of mouse having different sensors. Emotions are also determined by human eye expression in which the eye region from a video sequence is analyzed. From the different frames of the…
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