fuel is reducing the dependency
of fossil fuel 2.The
fuel properties like density, viscosity, cetane number, calorific value and
flash point are compared with pure diesel fuel. Flash point of biodiesel is
higher than diesel fuel, so biodiesel is good alternative fuel than diesel fuel
and safer than biodiesel engine 3. The two-step
transesteri?cation response from claiming waste oils toward using stoichiometric
sums from claiming methanol and the necessary amounts about KOH, supplemented
with those accurate add up of KOH to kill acridity. Both responses were
completed in 30 min in the temperature go 40–60C Parameters for example, such
that density, viscosity, water content, and energy content were investigated4.
The concentration of carbon monoxide is decreases for the blends B20 and B100
for all loading conditions. thus biodiesel concentration increase, become negative effect due to high viscosity
and less increase in specific gravity in the complete combustion process, which
produces less amount of CO. Carbon dioxide emission is due to incomplete combustion of
fuel and it is basically depends on engine temperature, and Air fuel ratio5.
METHODOLOGY: The sunflower seed is
the fruit of the sunflower native to America. Sunflower oil, also known as “Surajmukhi tel” is non-volatile
oil extracted. Biodiesel reactor is used to produce
bio-diesel from sunflower seeds. 20L capacity biodiesel
reactor is used to produce bio-diesel from sunflower seeds. The production
of biodiesel, methyl ester is well known. The ester production from oils and
fats is catalyzed based transesterification
of the oil with alcohol.
oil/fat + 3 methanol ?3 methyl esters + 1glycerine
In the transesterification process exchanging
of the organic group R of an ester with the organic group R of an alcohol. In this process reaction is catalyzed by use
of catalyst. In this stage the Sunflower oil is make reaction with the methanol
and catalyst. The catalyst is added to methanol so that it reacts with the oil.
In this experiment NAOH is used as the catalyst. The ratio between methanol and
oil is 5:1 and the mixture is stirred at 300 rpm for 60 min. When transesterification
process is completed then the mixture is taken to the separating flask and left
to setting for 18 hours. There will be two layers formed one is the biodiesel
in the top and other is Glycerine in the bottom. The Glycerine is removal from
the separating flask. Washing is define as the obtain pure biodiesel from Glycerine.
Washing is basically done to reduce the PH value and obtained pure biodiesel.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Four
cylinder 4-stroke diesel engines was used for the study the complete technical
specification and CI engine test kit used for performance testing is given
Rated power (H.P.)
Rated speed (rpm)
Cylinder no. and type
Four and four stoke
Table 1.1: Feature of the 4
stroke, 4 Cylinder diesel engine
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Experiments were conducted at a
constant speed and by varying the loads. Compare the emission and performance
of blended, biodiesel and pure diesel oil.