Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Helicobacter great importance. (3) To induce cancer,

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative
bacterial mycobacterial microarrophylic that the pathogenic bacteria reside
selectively in the epithelium of the stomach. This bacterium is responsible for
diseases such as gastric cancer, lymphoma, gastritis and gastrointestinal
ulcers. H.Pylori colonization produces chronic superficial gastritis and
basically all people with H. pylori colonized have gastric inflammation, but
less than 10% of these people suffer from associated illnesses, such as peptic
ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma or stomach lymphoma. (1)
After entering Helicobacter pylori to the body, the bacteria attack the
membrane of the stomach. When the bacterium carries significant damage to the
membrane of the stomach, gastric acid can enter the membrane and cause stomach
ulcers. Following the onset of acute active gastritis, the gastric mucosa
suffers from a series of gradual and sequential changes, which, after the onset
of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, become gastric
adenocarcinoma-type cancers. (2)

The relationship between Helicobacter Pylori’s
pathogenic factors and clinical outcomes: the spread of the disease depends on
the pathogenicity of bacterial strains, host susceptibility and Co-factors.
Among the diseases caused by this bacterium, cancer is of great importance. (3)

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To induce cancer, the bacterium has
pathogenicity factors such as CagA, VacA, OipA, and so on. (4) Cag A interacts
with the host cell communication and causes multiple changes in the skeleton of
the cell, and other factors, with their own mechanisms, induce gastric cancer.
(5)

Gastric cancer after lung cancer is the second
leading cause of cancer death in the world. (6) Gastric cancer is uncontrolled growth
of malignant tumor in the stomach (cancer stem cells), in which most people do
not show any symptoms until the advanced stages of the disease. (6)

One of the molecules that is changed in the
pathogenicity of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the host body is miRNA.
Micro-RNAs are a group of non-coding RNA molecules ranging from 21 to 23
nucleotides that control their target genes at post-transcriptional levels. (7)
These molecules play a role in vital cellular processes such as proliferation,
cell aging, apoptosis, metabolism, and cellular differentiation, as well as the
pattern of expression of miRNAs varies in different tissues. (7) One of the
most important issues related to microRNA is the identification of target
molecules. The creation of a few complementary pairings is essential for
functional interaction between the microRNA and the target sequence. (8, 9).

Several studies have shown that the expression
of miRNA in natural tissues is different from tumor tissues and also varies
among tumor types. (10)

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