Microbial communities are an immensely of import portion of dirt construction and map. Microbes rhythm foods, such as C and N, in the dirt, doing them available for usage by workss ( Rogers and Tate III 2001, Wu et Al. 2008 ) , and they affect the physical construction of dirt by organizing microaggregates of dirt atoms ( Wu et al. 2008 ) . The microbic community is besides influenced by the dirt ; the dirt type and its belongingss ( Wu et al. 2008 ) and the litter type ( Rogers and Tate III 2001 ) can impact the size and activity of the bugs.
The flora growth in the dirt can besides hold a major impact on microbic communities ; forest and agricultural dirts holding really different community composings ( Macdonald 2009 ) . There are several ways to place the bugs composing a dirt community, including dirt enzyme activity, microbic community numbering, and metabolic diverseness forms ( Rogers and Tate III 2001 ) . In this survey, bacteriums were cultivated from agricultural and forest dirts, and a individual bacterium was identified by features such as cell morphology and biochemical cycling and metamorphosis. Methods The methods were adapted from Roberston and Egger ( 2010 ) .
Cultures were prepared from 10-2 dilutions of agricultural and forest dirts in angles, stocks, deeps, run home bases, spread home bases, and anaerobiotic spread home bases, and from dilutions of 10-4-10-7 pour home bases were prepared. From these, four distinguishable settlements were subcultured on run home bases and angles, and gm staining was applied to the original civilizations. The subcultures were so cultured in TSA home bases, amylum agar home bases, SIM ( Sulfide, Indole, and Motility ) deeps, peptone, ammonium sulphate, nitrite, nitrate, and thioglycollate stocks to be tested for alimentary cycling.
TSA subcultures were tested with H2O2 and p-Aminodimethylaniline oxalate, an extra trial non included in Robertson and Egger ( 2010 ) , starch home bases tested with I, peptone and ammonium sulphate stocks with Nessler ‘s reagent, ammonium sulphate and nitrite stocks with Trommsdorf ‘s reagent and dilute H2SO4, nitrite stocks with diphenylamine and concentrated H2SO4, nitrate stocks with Reagents A, B, and C, SIM deeps observed for motility, H2S production, and tested with Kovac ‘s reagent, and thioglycollate stocks observed for O penchant.
Consequences The stray bacterium was a Gram-positive cocci of diameter 1. 6um with cells that did non aggregate together and were found to be motile ( Table 1 ) . Colonies were round and glistening, with a pale pink to orange pick colour runing to non-pigmented ( Table 1 ) . The bacterium did non hydrolyse amylum, cut down H sulphide, or bring forth indole ( Table 1 ) . Nitrate was non denitrified, but trials indicated that the bacteriums did nitrify nitrite to nitrate, and produced ammonium hydroxide from nitrogen compounds ( Table 1 ) . Trials for O tolerance indicated an aerobic or microaerophilic bacteriums, although there was no oxidase or catalase activity ( Table 1 ) .
From the observations and trial consequences, it was determined that the bacterium was most likely a member of the genus Sporosarcina ( Egger 2010 ) . Discussion Using settlement morphology, cell morphology and gram-stain, the possible individuality of the bacterium was foremost narrowed to the genera Micrococcus, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, Sarcina, and Arthrobacter ( Egger 2010 ) .
Motility, ammonification, settlement morphology, and cell morphology indicated that of these, Sporosarcina was the most likely individuality ( Egger 2010 ) . Lack of denitrification, amylum hydrolysis, indole production, and H2S production besides supported the individuality, as did O tolerance ( Egger 2010 ) . These features were farther supported by Claus and Fahmy ( 1986 ) , Kocur and Martinec ( 1963 ) , and Yoon et Al. ( 2001 ) . Although Egger ( 2010 ) indicated that Sporosarcina was both oxidase and catalase positive, some species in the genus are oxidase negative ( Kocur and Martinec 1963 ) .
Egger ( 2010 ) besides indicated that Sporosarcina cells aggregated as diplococci or in fours, but Kocur and Martinec ( 1963 ) and Claus and Fahmy ( 1986 ) have shown that there are species in the genus happening as individual cocci, as the stray bacterium did. Several species of Sporosarcina are psychrotrophic or psychrophlic ( Yoon et al. 2001, Reddy et Al. 2003 ) as the stray bacterium was. The stray bacteriums did non cut down nitrates to nitrites as some species in the genus do, but it has been shown that this trait can be variable ( Kocur and Martinec 1963, Yoon et Al. 001 ) .
An erroneous characteristic the indicant that the stray bacteriums nitrified ammonium ions to nitrate. This is typically a feature of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteriums like Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus and Nitrobacter, aerophilic Gram-negative bacteriums ( Egger 2010 ) . The declarative trial consequences were uneven, as Nessler ‘s reagent indicated no ammonium hydroxide and Trommsdorf ‘s reagent indicated no nitrite in the ammonium sulphate stock, and diphenylamine reagent indicated the presence of nitrate in the nitrite stock ( Table 1 ) .
The trial of the nitrite stock with Trommsdorf ‘s reagent, nevertheless, produced a brown merchandise for all four of the bacteriums tested ; a negative consequence should hold produced no reaction, go forthing the liquid clear, and a positive consequence should hold yielded a bluish black coloring material ( Robertson and Egger 2010 ) . No account was found for this phenomenon. The negative consequence of the catalase trial is besides debatable. All indicants are that Sporosarcina are catalase positive ( Kocur and Martinec 1963, Claus and Fahmy 1986, Yoon et Al. 001, Reddy et Al. 2003, Egger 2010 ).
The lone catalase negative bacteriums provided by Egger ( 2010 ) were Sarcina, Actinomycetes, and Nitrobacter, all of which did non fit the other features of the bacteriums. No account was found for this indicant, though Busse et Al. ( 1996 ) stated that trial for catalase can be hard to standardise and construe. The dependability and success of the trials used must be taken into consideration when placing a bacterium such as Sporosarcina.
Many of the trials used to place Sporosarcina indicated the presence of biochemical tracts and phenotypes which can be variable between species of the same genus ( Busse et al. 1996 ) . For illustration, Egger ( 2010 ) and Kocur and Martinec ( 1963 ) show that Sporosarcina are oxidase negative, while Clause and Fahmy ( 1986 ) indicate that the genus is oxidase positive. Some consequences for these trials, such as the nitrite broth reaction with Trommsdorf ‘s reagent, can non be explained if they do non give one of the expected consequences.
Busse et Al. ( 1996 ) besides indicate out that many trials, for illustration those for indole, catalase, and oxidase, are hard to standardise and construe, which may explicate the negative consequences for the catalase trial. They besides point out that freshly isolated strains of a civilization may respond otherwise than those which have been stored or subcultured over a longer period of clip and that many designation systems were designed for specific taxa and may non work the same manner with other beings ( Busse et al. 1996 ) .
It must besides be considered that some techniques and trials used, such as gram-staining, take pattern to be done decently and good. All the trials undertaken in the lab were being performed for the first clip by person with no old experience. In order to guarantee accurate consequences, it is suggested that multiple civilizations be made in trial media and the trials themselves be performed in extra.
There are besides a assortment of other trials that could be used to corroborate the individuality of Sporosarcina. As Sporosarcina are endospore forming bacteriums ( Kocur and Martinec 1963, Claus and Fahmy 1986, Yoon et Al. 001 ) , proving for endospore formation utilizing terbium diplocolinate photoluminescence ( Pellegrino et al. 1998 ) or entire luminescence spectrometry ( Smith et al. 2004 ) could confirm the designation. Some species have the ability to break up casein, gelatin, and tyrosin ( Claus and Fahmy 1986 ) , so proving for remotion of these substance from medium may bespeak Sporosarcina.
It has besides been found that Sporosarcina possess menaquinone systems ( Claus and Fahmy 1986 ) so designation of the these could lend to a positive designation. 6S rRNA analysis is an highly utile tool for placing phyletic relationships between bacteriums ( Busse et al. 1996 ) which has been successfully used to separate species by their similarities to Sporosarcina sequences in South-polar dirt ( Aislabie et al. 2006, Aislabie et Al. 2008 ) , and so could be used place the stray bacterium as a member of the genus. Like the bacteriums in Antarctica, Sporosarcina are preponderantly found in dirt ( Claus et al. 1986, Acha et Al. 2009 ) , every bit good as some species such as S. macmurdoensis found in pools.
One of the big functions of Sporosarcina in the dirt is the production of urease, which catalyzes the production of CO2 and ammonium hydroxide, take downing the pH of environing dirts and doing the precipitation of mineral ions ( Acha et al. 2009 ) . The add-on of carbamide to the dirt can hold a damaging consequence on shooting seedlings and immature workss, every bit good as populations of micro-organisms ( Omar and Ismail 1999 ) , and species like S. ureae play an active function in the decomposition of urea ( Claus and Fahmy 1986 ) .
To the extent possible with the given biochemical and alimentary trials and observations, the bacteriums isolated from the forest dirt was identified as a member of the genus Sporosarcina. Not all trials, such as the catalase trial, matched to Sporosarcina, but the similarities between Sporosarcina and the stray bacteriums were plenty to supply an designation as a member of the genus. Without more biochemical testing, or even DNA or RNA analysis, it can non be said for certain that the bacterium is a member of Sporosarcina but the survey was successful in supplying a really likely individuality for the bacterium as Sporosarcina.