Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

In good wages and the average income

In your opinion, are Canadians healthy
today? Why or why not? (4 marks)


In my opinion the Canadians are healthy in today’s scenario. In the
recent years the mortality rate and the life chart of Canada has improved.
Everyone here in Canada believes in staying fit and for that most of the people
follow a great diet plan and hit the gym everyday. As we say every coin has two
faces similarly Canada has had a vast history in diseases (especially cardio
related ) and the income has been a great issue. Diseases have affected
Canadians a lot and lack of good income led to tragedies in peoples lives.

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But now Canada has had great improvements in their medical field, which
has led to a decrease in the number of patients and people are now getting good
jobs with good wages and the average income of a person is increased as
compared to before. All of this improvements has had a great impact on the
society and people are living good and health free lifestyle.


Follow the link posted on
e-learn (Social Determinants of Health) and complete the following chart
(36 marks):



Underlying Premise

1 Interesting Fact or Piece of Evidence

1.Income and Social

Higher social and economic status is associated with
better health. People with higher income has good living conditions and are
disease free, whereas people with low income are prone to stress which
eventually leads to many diseases.

Only 47% of Canadians in the lowest income category rate
their health as good compared to 73% of Canadians in higher income category
who rate their health as good or excellent.

2.Social support

Social support as in from families, friends and
communities can help people solve problems in their lives and help them to
deal with adversity, as well as help them to have control over their own
lives. Which would eventually lead to better health.

A brief study in California found that people who are more
socially active and have more social contacts have lower premature death

3.Education and

Health status improves with education. Education gives
people more skills and knowledge which eventually helps them to get control
and mastery over their life. It gives jobs and income security and last but
not the least satisfaction.

In 1990 Canada health survey found out that the number of
lost workdays decreases with increasing education. People with schooling
qualifications lose 7 workdays as compared to people with university


Unemployment and poor working environment leads to bad
health. People who are employed and have good working environment are likely
to have less stress which eventually leads to good health conditions.

In 1996-97 NPHS, women reported high stress levels than
men. Women aged from 20-24 reported higher work stress in fact three times
more than any average Canadian worker.

5.Social environments



6.Physical environment

Contamination of food, air, water and soil in our
environment can lead to health issues. Similarly with good and clean surrounding
can influence our physical and psychological wellbeing.

A study in southern Ontario found many admissions in the
hospital due to respiratory diseases in the summer months with increased
level of sulphates and ozone in the air.

7.Personal health
    Practices and
    Coping skills

A person should take care of himself and develop self
dependency as well as learn to cope with challenges in life and make good
choices that would enhance his/her health.
This can be affected by the socioeconomic environments in
which people learn, earn and play.

In Canada excessive smoking is considered for one-quarter
of the deaths, especially people between 35-84 years. Over the past five
years the rate of smoking has increased among women and the aboriginal people
smoking figures are double then overall Canadian figures.  

8.Healthy child

A person’s development at an early age contributes a lot
in the latter life. If he/she gets good nourishment, good education, good
parental values, good nutrition and good food at a younger age then their
latter life goes on with a good health.

An infant or a child who are abused or neglected are more
prone to injuries and they see more behavioural and social changes in their
latter life.

9.Biology and genetic

People might have a bad health or get affected by diseases
due to genetic inheritance.

Neurobiological studies show that if a child’s development
(from conception to age 5) occurs in optimal conditions then the brain
develops in a positive way with positive outcomes for the whole life.

10.Health services

Health services is designed to promote and maintain health,
to prevent diseases and to rehabilitate an individual’s health. It includes treatment
and services.

Many low income Canadians have limited or no access to the
health services of Canada such as eye care, dentistry and mental counselling.


Gender is just a word and the society has divided it into
sexes. This has influenced the health system practices and priorities. Many
health problems are due to the social roles or the status.

Men die prematurely than women, because of cancer,
suicides, etc. The rate of men dying before 70 is twice the number of women
and the rate of men dying between 20-34 is three times then the women.


Some people might get health diseases due to cultural
restrictions and lack of access to culturally appropriate health services and

In a comparison scenario Inuit commit 70 per100,000
suicides following 29 per 100,000 suicides for the Dene and at last 15 per
100,000 suicides for the other ethnic groups.


Of the 12, which social determinants have
influenced or contributed to your health negatively or positively?  Your family’s health?  How have these social experiences shaped
your behaviours, attitude and approach to health? (You do not need to
include names, as all information is confidential). (4 marks)


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