Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

In the synthesis of the nutrient element

In today’s world, most people are familiar with the
word “Genetically modified
organisms (or GMOs)”. It is a common technology in our daily life. On the one
hand, the GMOs brings many benefits to our society. But on the other hand, it
also has potential and unknown risks. Whether or not genetically modified
organisms should be applied in our world has always been controversial.

William
Hawk & Gerald Schlabach from Bluffton College, Ohio defined utilitarian as
” The principle of utility as outlined by John Stuart Mill is that one is
obligated morally to produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Mill
identified the good with utility (Bentham, Mill’s teacher, considered the good
to be pleasure). In calculating whether an action is right or wrong, one needs
to project the total consequences for good or ill, and determine the action
that will optimize utility in the situation. For such calculations each
person’s interests are to count for one (you cannot privilege your own interests)
and the outcome should maximize (or optimize) positive results. “Apply the viewpoint of utilitarian, when
action is being considering to take. The consequences and
utility is the most important thing to judge. There are a lot of examples about
GMOs technology brings many benefits to human being. For instance, in
today’s world, there are still a large number of people facing the threat of
hunger. However, the genetically modified foods can easily solve the problem of
hunger of large-scale poor people. Under the same planting conditions, the
basic traits of crops through genetically modified technology can be made to
more adaptable to the environment to obtain higher yield. Thus, genetically
modified foods have effectively solved the problem that some countries can’t
guarantee their grain output due to the shortage of cultivated land. In
addition, the cost of genetically modified crops is low so that farmers can
achieve more economic benefits. Application of genetically modified technology,
crops can adapt to extreme conditions such as low temperature. Not only that,
genetically modified foods can also effectively solve the problem of nutrient
intake. For example, some essential nutrition elements only exist on a small
number of particular plants. But using genetically engineered plants to control
the synthesis of the nutrient element of the gene fragments into the more
common crops, the realization of nutritional customization. Integrate the
nutrients people need into one type of crop, making it easy for people to
access nutrients. GMOs is not only widely used in the field of food, but also
large-scale application in the medical field. Doctors using genetically
modified technology can heal some complex diseases. It bring hopes to those
patients who got incurable diseases. After summarizing the utilities that GMOs bring to our world. The
utilitarian will support GMOs since it has many advantages indeed.

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Dr.
Heikes defined deontological ethical theory as “right and wrong are determined
by whether the action is consistent with duty and done from a motive of fulfilling
one’s moral obligation; moral obligation is defined as respect for person.” To apply the deontological ethical theory to
analyze GMOs. Firstly, we need to analyze the influence of GMOs. Genetically
modified foods may
bring about unforeseen biological mutations, and produce higher levels of
hormones in food and new toxins, long-term consumption of genetically modified
foods will produce a potential threat to human health and life, leading to
decrease people’s resistance, and may induced infectious diseases. Genetically
modified foods may also destroy the stable natural ecosystem and break down the
organic balance of ecosystems. Moreover, genetically modified foods can also
destroy biodiversity. After entering the natural environment, genetically modified
organisms may affect the reproduction and development of progeny of the species
through genetic inheritance and mutation, and form dominant species by changing
the competition among species, and it may seriously disturb the stability and
orderliness of the natural environment, undermine the original ecological balance
and produce a potential risk to biodiversity through food chain. In addition,
the long-term and large-scale cultivation of genetically modified
insect-resistant crops will accelerate the evolution of insects to resist pesticide, ultimately resulting
in increased use of pesticides and greater damage to farmland and natural
environment. Furthermore, the genes that have some resistance in the transgenic
crops may be transferred and diffused by pollen, insect or velar pathways, and
they will hybridize with the wild relatives of the same genus in their
neighboring regions, so that some Resistance to pests, herbicides or
environmental stress tolerance genes are transferred to wild relatives of weeds,
weeds get the resistance of transgenic organisms, and become “super
weeds” and thus a serious threat to other crops Normal growth and
survival. In addition, GM technology can cause uncontrollable food ingredients,
causing potential harm to humans. First, GMOs may increase and
accumulate a small amount of toxins in food, leading to a substantial increase
in cancer morbidity and mortality. Second, due to the uncontrollable
introduction of new genes into recipient cells by transgenic technology, it may
lead to the increase of the original allergens and the generation of new
allergens. Third, genetically modified technologies can alter the major
nutritional components of crops, which in turn can create new nutritional
deficiencies. Fourth, the extensive use of antibiotic resistance marker genes
may cause the human body to become resistant to many antibiotics and affect the
effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. Overall, deontological ethical theory
judge an action mainly focusing on moral obligation and motivation. From this
perspective, GMO’s motivation is to increase the food production and solve the
problem of hunger. But on the other hand, it also put human being at a high
risk.

According
to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
website, libertarianism is defined as “In the most general sense,
libertarianism is a political philosophy that affirms the rights of individuals
to liberty, to acquire, keep, and exchange their holdings, and considers the
protection of individual rights the primary role for the state. This entry is
on libertarianism in the narrower sense of the moral view that agents initially
fully own themselves and have certain moral powers to acquire property rights
in external things.” The libertarian address individual’s free willingness and
ownership. Apply the point view of libertarianism to GMOs. Whether or not using
GMOs is a person’s freedom and choice. The governments should not interfere. If the individual thinks the GMOs is proper and
correct, the individual will chose to use it. If the individual think the GMOs
is improper and incorrect, the individual will oppose the GMOs. All of choices
should be decided by individual’s willingness. The government doesn’t have
right to meddle an individual’s business on the GMOs.

There
are several ethical issues when regard the introduction of GMOs into the food
supply. These are three main ethical issues that bother our society.

Firstly,
the GMOs may cause some dangers to human being and it is risk to use. People are also concerned about the impact
of growing GM crops on the ecological environment and biodiversity. Planting GM
crops may have some potential impacts on agro-ecological environment. And the GMOs may cause
adverse effects to environment and people’s health. It is still a big potential treat to apply GMOs
into food supply in large scale.

Secondly,
on the food market, consumer can’t know if the food that he or she is going to
bug is produced by GMOs in some cases. In other words, some products which made
by GMOs don’t have a label to show it applied GMOs. The right of independent
choice is established on the basis of guaranteeing consumers’ right to know
without the right to know that is to say no choice. GMO producers and marketers
generally agree that GM foods are as safe as traditional foods, as long as they
meet the “substantial equivalence” principle proposed by the
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1993, and it
is not necessary to label it. Opponents argue that this principle actually
evaluates the safety of food products using the chemical composition of the
final food, regardless of the safety of the entire production process of the
GMO or GMO food, including human health and environmental safety.

Thirdly,
to apply GMOs to food
supply in large scale needs to do human experiment. Due to questions about the
potential dangers and instability of genetically modified foods, some
scientists advocate the use of human experiments to validate their conclusions.
However, it has been suggested that human beings are different from other
species and that human experiments are trampling on bioethics and infringe upon
the basic human rights of the experimenter. Which is not moral and against the
humanity.

 Use
utilitarian theory to support GMOs. To consider if an action is morally correct, society need to concern if
taking this action will achieve the maximum utility
and bring more benefits to our world. Indeed, to apply GMOs to food supply in
large scale needs to do human experiment. It will cause health problem on those
subjects. But some people have to sacrifice themselves to test for GMOs’ security problem in
order to produce the greatest good for the greatest
number. From utilitarian perspective, it is the moral action to take.

Use deontological ethical theory to oppose GMOs. Since the GMOs may cause dangers to human being and environment. The Deontological theory will not support GMOs.
Even though it produce some benefits to our society and world. Those benefits
will not make any difference. Since the GMOs produced a lot of risks such as
cause adverse effect to environment, bring health problem to human being. It
determine if an action is moral depending on its moral value and motivation
instead of the outcomes. So from deontological
ethical theory perspective, it is not the moral action to take.

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