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Interleaved of interleaved converter with voltage multiplier

 

Interleaved Boost Converter with Voltage Multiplier
for Photovoltaic System

  

 

 

Abstract -Nowadays, high step-up DC-DC
converters are used in the renewable energy system for achieving better
performance. Boost converters produces high outputs for low inputs. The
advantages of these type converters are low input current ripple, low conduction
losses, high efficiency and low voltage stress across switches. These
converters output voltage can be regulated by adjusting the duty cycle of
switches. In this paper a comparative study of conventional boost converter,
interleaved boost converter, and interleaved converter with voltage multiplier
has been carried out by both simulation using MATLAB/simulink and mathematical
analysis.

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Keywords
–Boost converter, high gain, interleaved converter with voltage multiplier
module, renewable energy system.

 

I.            
INTRODUCTION

 

 

Recently, renewable
energy sources plays important role in energy profile because of environmental
pollution problems and unavailability of electricity. Renewable energy source
produces low output voltage. Hence a high voltage gain dc/dc converters is required
in renewable energy systems like wind energy system, fuel cells and solar
energy system. In renewable energy system, low dc output voltage is converted
into high dc output voltage byusing dc-dc boost converters. The boosted output
voltage is converted to ac voltage by using an inverter and given to the ac
loads. Fig.1 shows a block diagram of renewable energy system having PV
sources, dc/dc boost converter and inverter for ac loads 17.

 

 

Fig.1 Block
diagram of renewable energy sources

 

Boost converters,
interleaved boost converters and flyback converters are used for achieving high
step up voltage gain. Unfortunately, these converters have some drawbacks for
producing high voltage gain. Boost converter gives high voltage gain only with
duty cycle higher than 0.7. Operating with greater than 0.7 duty cycle causes
instability of boost converter

. Next conventional interleaved boost
converter is good for high power application and power factor correction, but
voltage gain is reduced due to voltage stress across the switches and diodes
2-5. Voltage across the switch is equal to the output voltage of the converter
3.

Interleaved converter with voltage multiplier
converter is an interleaved boost converter combined to voltage multiplier, and
the voltage multiplier consists of capacitors and inductors. Advantages of
interleaved converter with voltage multiplier i) Reduces conduction losses ii)
Lowripple current in input. iii) It attains a high voltage gain. iv) Less voltage
spikes across the switches. Henceefficiency of interleaved converter with
voltage multiplier is improved 1. 

 

II.   
OPERATING PRINCIPLE

a)        
 Interleaved
Boost Converter

 

 Interleaved boost converter is
composed of two boost converter connected in parallel. Fig.6 shows the basic
circuit diagram of interleaved boost converter. It operates in two modes.

D1

 

D2

Fig.6.
Basic circuit of interleaved boost converter

 

In mode I operation,switch

 is turned ON condition. The inductor current

 rises linearly from zero. This period inductor

stores energy.

In mode II switch

 is in ON condition, the diode

begins to conduct and the inductor
current

 rises linearly. In this period inductor

 starts to release its stored energy and the
current flows through the diode to the load. Fig.7 shows waveform of
interleaved boost converter operating at 180° out of phase. The switching
pulses of the converters are shifted by a phase difference of 360/n(n-number of
boost converter connected in parallel)3.

 

 

Fig.7 Waveforms
of Interleaved Boost Converter Operating at 180° Out Of Phase

 

b)     
Interleaved
converter with voltage  multiplier

 

Structure of interleaved converter with voltage
multiplier is a conventional interleaved boost converter combined with voltage
multiplier module. Voltage multiplier module is made up of switching capacitors
and coupled inductors. This configuration makes interleaved converter to
modifiedboost-flyback-forward interleaved structure.

Fig.8
shows interleaved converter with voltage multiplier

 

In this configuration, power switches

coupled inductor

, flyback diodes

and

and output capacitors

 acts as flyback converter by releasing the
stored energy in the inductor to the output terminal when the power switches

 are turn off in a sequence.In mode I, mode
III, mode V, and mode VII energy is directly given to the output terminal by a
transformer action when the switches

 are in turnedon conditionlike a forward
converter.Coupled inductor design provides high step-up gain, reduces the ripple
current in input and switched capacitors helps to achieve high voltage conversion.
Also the stored energy in magnetizing inductor starts to release through its
respective paths during one of the switches is in on condition. It will reduce
the conduction losses and decreases diode reverse recovery losses in diodes.
Fig.8 shows the interleaved converter with voltage multiplier module.

This converter works in
continuous conduction mode (CCM) with duty cyclesof switches higher than 0.5
and interleaved with 180° phase shift. 

Fig.9 Waveforms of Interleaved Converter
with Voltage Multiplier

Interleaved converter with voltage
multiplier has eight modes of operation. Fig.9 shows waveform of this converter
for one switching period.

MODE I

Switch

 continues in the ON state and switch

 starts to conduct. Diodes

,

,

 and

 are reverse biased. Series leakage inductor

 starts to discharge to the output terminal through
flyback forward diode

 and decreases to zero. The secondary winding
of coupled inductor is energized by magnetizing inductor

.

 

MODE II

Switches

and

 are continues in ON state and all diodes in
reverse biased conduction. Leakage inductors

and

 starts to charges linearly, by input source

.

 

Fig.10   Modes
of operation of interleaved converter with voltage multiplier

(a) Mode I, (b) Mode II, (c) Mode III, (d) Mode IV

(e) Mode V (f) Mode VI (g) Mode VII (h) Mode VIII

 

MODE III

Switch

 continues in the ON state and switch

 turns to OFF state.  The diode

,

and

 are reverse biased. The secondary winding of
coupled inductor is energized by magnetizing inductor

 and series leakage inductor

 starts to discharge to the output terminal
through flyback- forward diode

. The voltage stress across the switch

 is clamped by clamp capacitor

.
The
input voltage source, magnetizing inductor

, leakage inductor

, and clamping capacitor

discharges to the
output terminal.

 

MODE IV

All the switches and diodes are in
same state of mode III except diode

 and current

 
through

 decreases to zero. And therefore, reduces the
diode reverse recovery losses and decreases the conduction losses also.

 

MODE V

Switch

 continues in the ON state and switch

 starts to conducts. Diodes

,

,

,

and

 are reverse biased. Series leakage inductor

 starts to discharge to the output terminal,
through flyback forward diode


The secondary winding of coupled inductor is energized by magnetizing
inductor

.

 

MODE VI

Switches

 and

 are continues in ON state and all diodes in
reverse biased conduction. Leakageinductors

and

 starts to charges linearly, by input source

.

 

MODE VII

Switch

 continues in the ON state and

 turn to OFF state.  The diodes

,

 and

 are reverse biased. The secondary winding of
coupled inductor is energized by magnetizing inductor

, and series leakage inductor

 starts to discharge energy to the output
terminal, through flyback forward diode

. The voltage stress across
switch

 is clamped by clamp capacitor

. The input voltage source, magnetizing
inductor

, leakage inductor

, and clamping capacitor

discharges to the output.

 

MODE VIII

All the switches and diodes are in same
state of mode VII except diode

, and current

 through

 decreases to zero. And therefore reduces the
diode reverse recovery losses and decreases the conduction losses1.

 

 

 

 
Sl.no

 
  
Parameters

 
Boost
converter

 
Interleaved
boost converter

Interleaved
converter with voltage multiplier

1

Input
voltage

12

40

100

12

40

100

12

40

100

2

Output voltage

60

200

500

60

200

500

137

457

1142

3

Duty cycle

0.8

0.8

0.65

4

Gain

5

5

11

5

Voltage across
the switches

60

200

500

60

200

500

120

400

1000

 

III.
SIMULATION
RESULTS

 

For
analyzing the three converters, simulated the circuits of converters using
MATLAB/Simulink software, and simulation parameters are given in table no.2

 

Sl.no

parameters

Interleaved boost converter

Interleaved
converter with voltage multiplier

1

Input voltage(V)

 
12

 
40

 
100

 
12

 
40

 
100

   2

   Switching frequency(KHz)

             40

            40

3

  Switch

        MOSFET

     MOSFET

4

Duty ratio

0.8

0.65

5

Inductor(µH)

150

133

6

Output filter(µF)

500

470, 220

6

Load resistor

250

150

 

Table.2
Simulation parameter

 

 

 

 

c)                
Interleaved
Converter with    Voltage Multiplier

Fig 19 shows the
simulated circuit diagram of interleaved converter with voltage multiplier.

 

Fig.19 Simulated diagram for Interleaved
Converter with Voltage Multiplier

I.       INPUT VOLTAGE                                                               

Fig.
20 shows input voltage. Parameters of converter: Input voltage 40V.

Fig.20 Simulated
input voltage of interleaved converter with voltage multiplier.

 

II.   
INPUT CURRENT

Fig.21
shows the input current waveform of boost converter. Input current waveform is
used to calculate the current ripple in input.

The
maximum current is 16.9A and minimum current is 10.8A. The Input ripple current
is 0.35A.

Fig.21 input current of interleaved
converter with voltage multiplier.

III.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Fig.22 shows the output waveform of
interleaved boost converter with voltage multiplier and obtained output voltage
380V.

Fig.22 Simulated output voltage forInterleaved Converter
with Voltage Multiplier

Output of simulation

 

Table
no.3 shows the simulation results of boost converter, interleaved boost
converter and interleaved converter with voltage multiplier.

 

Sl.
no

Parameter

Interleaved
Boost Converter

Interleaved
Boost Converter with Voltage Multiplier

1

Input
voltage(V)

12

40

100

12

40

100

2

Output
voltage(V)

60.5

212

531

112

380

960

3

Voltage
Gain

5.3

9.5

4

Voltage
stress
across
the switches(V)

32.55

82.16

205.9

58.18

193.8

484.5

0.0105

0.3476

0.869

0.623

2.113

5.366

Table.3
Simulation results

 

IV. CONCLUSION

 

In this paper,
comparison study of boost converter, interleaved boost converter and
interleaved converter with voltage multiplier module are done by using
mathematical analysis and MATLAB simulation. From these three converters,
interleaved converter with voltage multiplier module shows good performance. It
achieves high voltage gain and overcome the drawbacks of other two converters.
It is more suitable for renewable energy system applications that requires high
boost ratio.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

1.       
Kuo-Ching
Tseng and Chi-Chih Huang “High Step-Up High-Efficiency Interleaved Converter
with    Voltage Multiplier Module for
Renewable Energy System” IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 61,
no. 3, March.

2.       
R. Puviarasi, Dr..D.Dhanasekaran, V.Prabhakaran “A
Comparative Analysis of High Step up DC-DC Boost Converters” International Journal of Emerging Trends in
Engineering and Development Issue 4, Vol.2 (March 2014).

3.       
Mounica
Ganta1, Pallam reddy Nirupa, Thimmadi Akshitha, Dr.R.Seyezhai “Simple And
Efficient Implementation Of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable
Energy Source” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced
Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)

4.             
J.S.Anu Rahavi, T.Kanagapriya, Dr.R.Seyezhai,
“Design and Analysis of Interleaved Boost Converter for Renewable Energy
Source” 2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical
Technologies ICCEET.

5.       
C.H Sravan, D.Narashimharao “Interleaved Boost
Converter   with ZVT for Grid Connected
PV System” International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and
Development,Vol.2,March 2012.

6.       
Gustavo
a. l. Henn, R. N. a. l. Silva, Paulo p. parka, Luis h. s. c. Barreto, member, IEEE, and Demercil s.
Oliveira, jr.  “Interleaved-Boost
Converter with High Voltage Gain”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol.
25, no. 11, November.

7.       
Anjali
.R. Prakash”Review of high step up converter with voltage multiplier for
photovoltaic system” international journal of advanced research in electrical,
electronics and instrumentation engineering.

8.       
Muhammad
H. Rashid “power electronics circuits,devices, and applications”.

9. Dr.P.S. Bimbhra “power
electronic

 

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