Quality Management (TQM) could simply be explained as a structured and a
comprehensive approach towards organizational management, which aims to improve
the quality of products and services produced by an organization through
ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback (ASQ, 2017).
Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to a strategy that focuses on
constructing quality awareness in all the processes of an organization. Oakland
(Oakland, 2003), a renowned author
of quality management, defined Total Quality
as “philosophy, culture, strategy or management style of a company
according to which all persons in the same, study, practice, participate and
promote continuous quality improvement”. The concept of Total Quality
Management (TQM) could also be explained as a continuous improvement process,
with the aim of achieving optimal quality in all areas, which in Disney’s case
would be its movies, television shows, and the Disneyland the biggest theme
park in the world.
Walt Disney is a huge company
founded in the United States in 1923, which is named after its founder, Walter
Elias Disney. Walt Disney was originally closely related to the production of
drawings and animated films, including the famous “Mickey Mouse”, who remains
to be the brand ambassador of the company even today (Wikipedia, 2017). Today, The Walt Disney Company is
present throughout the world, and has parks, produces films, owns television
channels, has resorts and sells all sorts of merchandises, so there are several
companies within this great company.
Walt Disney from its inception
has always aimed to maintain a strong commitment to quality entertainment based
on its legacy of exceptional quality and creativity, managing to stay in place
for many years, causing both grandparents as small children continues to be
entertained by Mickey Mouse and all his friends (Wikipedia, 2017). Throughout the years, The Walt Disney
Company has grown enormous and turned out having four major companies in which
all tasks are divided. Among them most significant is Disney Studio
Entertainment. The creation and production of films and animations are
distributed to the public through “Walt Disney Pictures,” which includes
Miramax Films, Pixar Animation, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Studios, Disney
Toon Studios, Touchstone Pictures and Hollywood Pictures.
Moreover, it has developed
Disney Parks and Resorts, the company that begins with the creation of the
first theme park, Disneyland in California. Disneyland officially Disneyland
Park since the 1990s, is a park located in Anaheim California, United States.
It was the first park of its kind built by The Walt Disney Company, and the
only one that was designed and built under the supervision of producer and
filmmaker Walt Disney. Disneyland was built with the aim of diversifying the
business model with the construction of an amusement park. Disneyland opened
its doors to the press and invited guests on July 17, 1955, just over a year
after that would start construction, and the next day it was open to the
public. Although some executives other
parks Disneyland believed would fail, in its first week recorded an attendance
of over 160,000 people. In 1957, two years after its opening, Disneyland was
one of the major tourist attractions in the United States, surpassing in
popularity to places like the Grand Canyon or Yellowstone National Park. It is estimated that 2015 has been one of the
amusement parks busiest year worldwide besides being visited by over 700
million people since its opening (Company, 2017). Walt Disney is credited with having
“redefined the concept of family vacations” and has been listed as a “tourist
mecca.” The design, divided into subject
areas, proved to be a novel concept at the time and the incorporation of robots
audio-animatronics used in some of its attractions and the first roller coaster
built with tubular steel history.
Disney Consumer Products is an
enterprise of the company dedicated to the expansion of Disney-branded
products, which include a huge range of products ranging from toys, clothes,
books, electronic games, drinks, food, to electronics and parts of art.
Finally, Disney Media Networks is one area that deals with business related to
radio, cable television, Internet and advertising of The Walt Disney Company.
This company has several TV channels and radios, among which could be mentioned
Walt Disney Internet Group, Disney-ABC Television Group, ABC Owned Television
Stations and ESPN Inc. As already mentioned, the company is also engaged in
marketing, advertising, research, sales and communications of this huge
OF DISNEYLAND’S BUSINESS ENTERPRISE’S AND DEVELOPMENT OF TQM
Walt Disney is among the few
organizations of the world that has been successful in incorporating new
concepts of the quality in the definition of the Total Quality Management. With
the aim of paying attention to every minute detail, Disney aims to exceed the
expectations of its guests visiting the theme park. Disneyland considers its
guest as VIPs, and very individual people also, a factor that contributes
towards the success of the Disney is people serving the people. Disney believes
it is up to them to make life easier for the guests at the Disneyland. Every
time a guest returns back to the Disneyland there expectation are even higher (Ingelson, 2012). This is the reason
why Disney strictly believes in attention to minute details, and providing its
guests with VIP treatment as an extremely important factor of the success of
the Corporation as a whole.
Walt Disney Company
demonstrates exceptional quality when it comes to the operating of Disneyland.
The focus of Disneyland is towards customer satisfaction, with specific focus
over the role of the employees in delivery of service. Walt Disney views its employees
as an essential organizational resource; this is the reason why great care is
taken in the hiring and training process of the employees. At Disney all the
employees are known as “cast members,” regardless of whether they are
performers, or janitors. Disney trains its employees extensively in customer
service, quality awareness and communication. Continual monitoring of quality
is considered as an essential component at Disneyland, and employees regularly
meet together in order to evaluate their effectiveness. All employees are
provided with a brief illustration of how the quality of their individual jobs
contributes to the success of the Disneyland (Ingelson, 2012).
Disney aims to provide the
people visiting their theme park with a high level customer service. In order
to ensure that each and every customer visiting Disneyland experience the
highest standards, Disney ensured that every employee has an essential role to
play in contributing towards the excellent products and services offered to the
customers at Disneyland. Through the utilization of Total Quality Management
(TQM), Disney implemented a culture of Innovation, Design Engineering
Organization (IDEO’S), under which Disney follows a non-hierarchical organization
culture (Anser Plouis, 2016). Under the IDEO’S the employees at
Disneyland does not rewarded based on the seniority of the ranks within the
company, but the employees are rewarded based on the number of projects that he
or she has undertaken.
This enabled Disney to
establish a system, in which the voice of each and every employee is being
heard. Through the implementation of IDEO’S Disney succeeded in removing the
existential hierarchy from its organizational culture. This was the willingness
that was possessed by Walt Disney for disclosing the corporate information to
each and every employee working within the organization. Walt Disney always
looked towards the facilitation of openness and transparency in the process of communication
within the organization (Sheikh, 2016). Disney through the
adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM) succeeded in establishing a system
for effectively conveying the important messages to all of his employees and
made them felt like a part of the company as employees had an equally important
role to play within the organization. It is the employees working within the
organization that will provide a high quality of service and products to the
consumer through continuous feedbacks and suggestion related to improvements,
which will help them become more competitive and ensure maintenance of high
quality standards of Disney. Furthermore, Disney always strives to provide its
employees an environment which is both enjoyable and productive at the same
time, and an environment in which the employees could realize their full
potential and fulfill their career aspirations.
STAFF TRAINING AT DISNEY
Edwards Deming stated that
quality does not mean luxury. Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and
reliability, low cost and adapted to market. In other words, quality is
everything consumers need and crave (Deming, 2012). Since the needs and
desires of consumers are always changing, how to define the quality with
reference to the consumer is to constantly redefine the requirements. It
increases productivity while decreasing variability.
Thus, following the principle
proposed by Deming Disneyland states that training of the staff members is
necessary, and the foremost part of their business strategy since they are
providing a service to the consumers and they can only quality service through
providing their staff with high quality training. Following are the points proposed by Deming
which are followed by Disney
reliability of function for improvement of service: This vision of Disneyland
guides the corporate culture and provides an objective to the organization.
new philosophy: It is essential to continuously update its process of providing
adequate training to all of its employees to keep up with the changing market
and customer needs.
dependence on inspection to achieve quality: Disneyland utilizes modern tools
such as statistical process control, the evolving operations, experience design
and deployment of the quality function, with the aim of assessing a problem and
looks to minimize the total cost to operate; end the practice of allocating
operations only on the basis of price.
constantly and forever every process: Disney believes that the process of
improvement is constant and increased productivity constantly reducing costs.
Through constant training to its staff members Disneyland aims to overcomes
defects and improve the process.
institute in function: At Disneyland training applies to all levels of the
organization, from the lowest to the highest.
institute leadership: Disney strongly believes in the fact that leadership
comes from the knowledge, expertise and interpersonal skills, not the
the fear: Disneyland resolves this issue
by identifying and filling the gaps in communication, culture and training.
barriers between staff areas: At Disneyland everyone must work as a team toward
a common goal. Teamwork is an imperative in modern management.
slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce: Disney effectively
eliminates unrealistic targets for its workforce in order to ensure high level
numerical quotas for workers and numerical goals for management: Disney has
eliminated all numerical quotas as they are not capable of considering the
statistical factors that affect all workers. Not all workers may be above
average; not all below it.
barriers that prevent staff pride in the work experience: At Disneyland it is
the responsibility of supervisors to pass the volume and quality end result,
and remove the barriers that prevent people from the opportunity to be proud of
their work (Holt, 2012).
energetic training program and self-improvement for the staff: Disneyland
provides all of its cast members adequate and effective training, the results
of the training may not manifest immediately, but often have important effects
in the long run. Self-improvement is a progressive task of self-development at
all staff of the company to achieve transformation: At Disneyland all the staff
members are committed to the highest levels as they understand that
transformation is necessary (Sheikh, 2016).
CUSTOMER SERVICE IMPROVEMENTS AT DISNEYLAND
Joseph explained quality as
suitability for use in terms of design, shaping, availability, security and
practical use and is based on systems and techniques for solving problems (Juran, 1998). Juran focused his
attention on the management view and top-down methods or techniques rather than
pride or satisfaction of the worker, a factor that differentiates Joseph from
the philosophy of Deming.
Thus, Disneyland has adopted
the measures proposed Joseph through which the whole staff members at
Disneyland are treated as cast members and all the senior managers are involved
in steering down the quality system at Disney Land. At Disneyland the quality
objective has now become the part of the business plan of the company (Anser Plouis, 2016).
Disney has successfully
implemented the Juan Trilogy model with the aim of effective management of
total quality at the park. Disneyland utilizes the following processes in order
to ensure that high level of customer service is always maintained through (Sheikh, 2016):
Quality Planning: Under this
activity Disney provides training and development to its staff member to ensure
that the services provided by them meet the customer requirements. In order to
achieve this goals following are the activities that are performed by Disney
quality services to the customer
process capable of ensuring a high quality of service to each and every
individual visiting Disneyland
Quality Control: This is an
administrative process, which includes the following steps:
the current process performance
performance with quality goals (actual versus standard)
Quality Improvement: In the
list of priorities for Disneyland improving quality occupies first place. In
this sense, it has developed a structured proposal, which includes a list of
non-delegable responsibilities for senior executives:
infrastructure: institute a quality advice; select improvement projects;
designate equipment; providing facilitators.
training on how to provide quality service to the customer
quality progress regularly
appreciate the winning teams
the reward system to accelerate the pace of improvement
the momentum to expand the business to include the goals of quality improvement
It is a revolutionary approach
to measuring and improving management quality has become a standard method for
the management of quality at Disneyland, as it helps the company to meet the
needs of customers and providing high quality of service (James R. Evans, 2013). There are several
technique used by Disneyland under this TQM technique which includes; Design,
communication, training, production, management, losses, etc. However, the
management of Disneyland still believes that the possibilities for improvement
and cost savings are enormous, but the Six Sigma process requires commitment of
time, talent, dedication, persistence and, of course, financial investment.
Following are some of the principles of Six Sigma that are being followed by
Disneyland (Sheikh, 2016).
engaged from top to bottom. At Disneyland this methodology involves a change in
how to conduct operations and make decisions. The strategy is supported and
committed from the highest levels of management to the bottom level of
is based on a management structure that includes full-time staff. Disneyland
manifests the commitment to Six Sigma by creating a management structure that
integrates business leaders, projects, experts and facilitators.
Each of the
actors in the Six Sigma program requires specific training workouts. Disneyland
provides all of its employees training through different training programs and
ensures that the employees must take extensive training, known as curriculum of
a black belt.
and focused on processes. Disneyland seeks that all processes meet customer
requirements and quality standards and meet the performance standards of Six
At Disneyland the Six Sigma
programs are based on an intense policy of communication between all members
and departments within the organization and outside the organization (Ingelson, 2012). This ensures that
all the employees are well aware of the current happening within the organization
and are connected with the changes that are being made in the organization.
Disneyland has implemented a
highly effective and efficient benchmarking system for rewarding and appraising
the performance of its employees. Disneyland does not reward based on the
seniority of the ranks within the company, but the employees are rewarded based
on the number of projects that he or she has undertaken (Sheikh, 2016).
Along, with that Disneyland also conducted external and internal
benchmarking programs with the aim of evaluating the performance of its cast
members in order to effectively hand the staff members which are the most
essential assets of Disneyland.
Thus, in the end it could be
concluded that the companies like Disney that are applying Total Quality
Management by establishing close relationship with its employees and
facilitating them through continuous training and development to ensure the
provision of high quality of products and services to the customer visiting the
Disneyland will be the one to succeed, and generate higher profits. A high
level of customer satisfaction can only be achieved through providing them with
high quality of care and maintaining strong standards which are something that
Disney have been doing successfully for years. Thus, the success of the
Disneyland seems to correlate with the ability of Disney to adhere to its
vision and promoting its core values which is high level of service to
customers through its employees.