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Introduction structure of graphene, which is the

Introduction

Since the discovery
of graphene, graphene has become a popular nanometer material. As the
two-dimensional structure of carbon it has unique properties in many terms.
Futher more, it has many useful applications. In our presentation, we focus on
graphene transistor, graphene-based sensor and graphene-based hydrogen
storage.  We choose aqueous dispersion of
graphene nanosheets as the preparation method because it is convient.

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 Body

Firstly we introduced the structure of
graphene, which is the 2D carbon. Then four aspects of properties were
introduced. Graphene is the strongest material ever tested, it is also displays
remarkable electron mobility at room temperature. Meanwhile, it has unique
optical properties and good thermal transportation.

In the application
of graphene transistor. Firstly we introduce the intergrated circuit and the
silicon transistor. The MOSFET(metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor)
is the basic unit in intergrated circuit. The amount of MOSFET and the working
frequency of gate relate to the performance of intergrated circuit. Both of
them has a limitaion of manufacture. On the one hand, smaller the length of
gate, more the MOSFET can be intergrated in a little chip. On the other hand,
smaller the length of gate, less the electic leakage in intergrated circuit,
higher the frequency it can get. The development of the manufacture
approximately follow the moore’s law”the size scaling has enabled the
complexity of integrated circuits to double every 18 months”. However, as a
simiconductor, the tunnelling effect is the main barrier to make the smaller
length of gate. The new material is needed to replace silicon. Graphene is a potential
material because of its excellent carrier mobility. The low voltage can drive
graphene transistor easily. However, as a simimetal, the main problem is the
zero bandgap. The bandgap is very important to form the two states(open and
closed) of transistors. It is necessary to use other method to form bandgap in
graphene. In nowaday we always use three methods to open the bandgap by change
the structure of graphene. “By constraining large-area graphene in one
dimension to form graphene nanoribbons, by biasing bilayer graphene and by
applying strain to graphene.” In our presentation we introduce bilayer graphene
transistor designed by MIPT. This method use to layer of graphene to form the
bandgap. One layer is valance band and the other is conduction band. There is a
gap of energy between them. This graphene transistor only appears in the
laboratry but it has display its strking performance. The working frequency of
the transistor can easily get 100GHz which is impossible for silicon
transistor. 

In the application
of graphene-based sensor, we mainly focus on the abnormal condition when
graphene nanoparticles is added into the putty. The mixture shows specific
electromechanical properties. The graphene particles can change the electrical
resistance of putty. Futher more, the putty is very sensitive in electrical
resistance when its shape changed. So these nanocomposites can be used to make
sensitive sensors. It can “measure pulse, blood pressure, and even the impact
associated with the footsteps of a small spider.” 

In the application
of graphene-based hydrogen storage, we focus on the new method to solve the
limitation of the solar-driven photocatalytic water splitting. In tradition
method, it is hard to exrtract hydrogen and oxygen in water. “Here they propose
a multi-layer structure where a carbon nitride is sandwiched between two
graphene sheets modified by different functional groups.” This graphene system
can get light, and the proton can through the hole. In the drive of
electrostatic, the proton go through graphene to react with electrons and form
hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen molecules is isolated and can not go out
through graphene. Therefore, the sandwich system can be a potential hydrogen
storage in the future. 

Conclusion

Graphene has shown its
excellent prospect in the fields of transistor, sensor and hydrogen storage.
Futher more, it is actually a potential new nano material. Its unique
properties make it has unlimited possibilities in the future.

 

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