Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Introduction: we can get from wheat are


aestivum in one of the major crops used for edible pupose in the world.
Wheat is valueable cereal cultivated in the different parts of world (Carvalho,
et al., 2013) along with other cereal
such as rice, maiz, oat, millet, barley, sorghum and burkwheat. There are many
uses of wheat and its by product such as chapatti in asian countries. Wheat
bran have high amount of antioxidents. Wheat crop is important beacause it
contribute 20 percent in world’s food calories. The food  which we can get from wheat are bread, pasta,
muffins and cakes etc ( Ishfaq, et al.,

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Wheat normally needs between 110-130 days
between sowing and harvesting, depending upon climate, seed types and soil
conditions. Knowledge of stages is also important to identify periods of high
risk from the climate. For example pollen formation from the mother cell and
the stage between an thesis and maturity are susceptible to high temperature
and this adverse effect is made worsen by water stress (23, 24). Several
systems exist to identify crop stages with the Freekes and Zadoks scales being
the most widely used.

Harvesting of the crop began in Sindh and
South Punjab in late March and expected to continue till mid June in North
Punjab. Harvesting of wheat and other Rabi crop in rain-fed area will begin after
May 15. At harvesting time, what stalks begin to bend over from the weight of
their kernels, and the entire plant has become golden in color. After wheat is
harvested form the field, machinery separates the stalks and chaff away from
the kernels. The stalks and chaff often are used in applications ranging from
mulch to animal bedding. The germination of seeds is affected by temperature,
water availability, oxygen, light, and substrate, maturity of seed and
physiological age of the seed. Various plants require different variable for
successful seed germination. This also linked with individual seed variety and
ecological conditions of plant natural habitat.

The minimum water content required to wheat
germination is 35% to 45% by weight. Air is composed of 20% oxygen, 0.03%
Carbon di oxide and 80% Nitrogen and seeds of most plant species germinate well
in and environment providing this mixture of gases. The optimum temperature for
germination is 12 to 250C .Specific seed often have a temperature range within
which it will germinate. Winter wheat requires exposure to cold temperature to
enable flowering. This process is termed vernalization. This is the acquisition
of a plant ability to flower in the spring by exposure to the prolonged cold of

affecting seed quality of pre and post-harvest seed: Precipitation prior to harvest can result in
to pre-harvest germination. It is also result in to attack of fungi
Cladosporium and Alternaria. Immature seed harvesting having lot of moisture
develop microflora grown in the seed lot. If mechanical damage occurs during
cleaning, dressing with chemicals, seed treatment, bagging, transportation of
seed result in to lost the seed quality. 12% is the ideal moisture for
harvesting of wheat. The correct chemical and doses are used when seeds are
treated with fungicides and insecticides. Other wise seed may show symptoms of

Review of Literature:

et al., (2015) studied that grain losses of wheat affected by different
harvesting and threshing techniques at Adaptive Research Farm, Vehari during
2010-11. Three methods of harvesting and threshing i.e. i) manual plus thresher
ii) reaper plus thresher and iii) combine harvester were used in the study. The
data revealed that   different harvesting
and threshing techniques had considerable impact on grain losses of wheat. The
harvesting losses with manual plus thresher and reaper plus thresher at the
field level were observed to be 164.37kg ha-1 and 142.93 kg ha-1accounting for
3.16% and 2.76%, respectively of wheat grain yield. Total grain losses during
harvesting and threshing processes with manual plus thresher, reaper plus
thresher and combine harvester were 222.63kg ha-1, 199.41kg ha-1and 149.87kg
ha-1which were 4.28%, 3.85% and 2.92% of the total yield, respectively. The
minimum amount of waste belonged to reaper plus thresher (0.82%) by providing
42.58 kg ha-1 broken grains and inert material in the produce. The cleaning
efficiency of combine was a bit poorer (98.90%) as compared to other harvesting
and threshing techniques.

and Siddiqui (2004) studied that Grain losses of wheat (cv. Mehran-89) affected
by threshing timings. The meteorological characteristics were slightly
different during observation dates. The data revealed that grain losses were
considerably affected by threshing timings; increased with late as well as
early threshing. Minimum grain losses were recorded during middle of the day.
Comparison of loss types indicated that the maximum were un-threshed followed
by un-broking grain losses.

et al., (1991) conducted an experiment to evaluate field grain losses in wheat
variety Sarsabz that were harvested, threshed and winnowed by conventional
method at Malir farm. Data from 30 samples showed that for traditional methods
average grain losses during pre-harvest , harvest and post-harvest stages were
10.8, 29 and 122.9 kg/ha respectively. They observed that post-harvest grain losses
were the highest. Among the post-harvest grain losses bundling losses were
maximum (1.41%) followed by threshing (1.02%), winnowing (0.66%) and transport

et al., (1992) used two combine harvesters with three forward speed levels to
harvest two wheat varieties having three grain moisture levels (26%, 20% and
13%) to monitor the harvesting losses. The analysis showed that Pak 81 is a
better choice regarding losses during harvesting compared with Punjab 85. The
grain damage was lower for Punjab 85. Separation losses were reduced at lower
moisture level but shattering and quality losses increased.

et al,. (2017) observed that during harvesting season, often rain and storms
occurs causing considerable damage to standing crops. Rapid harvest facilitates
extra days for land preparation and earlier planting of the next crop. The use
of machines can help to harvest at proper stage of crop maturity, reduce
drudgery and operation time. Crops are harvested after normal maturity with the
objective to take out grain, straw, tubers etc. without much loss. There are
several methods of harvesting and threshing for wheat crop i.e. manual and
mechanical method. Under this comparative study, the effective field capacity
at 16 % moisture content was 0.30 ha/hr at speed of 3 km/hr. The field
efficiency of self-propelled binder was 74, 76.79 %, and 77.90 % at moisture
content 20, 18, 16 % respectively. The shattering losses of self-propelled
reaper binder was 51 kg/ha at 3 km/hr forward speed with 20 % moisture content
and observed that increase forward speed shattering losses was increase. The
grain breakage percentage during experiment of combine harvest at 3.25 km/hr
speed with 20 % moisture content was 0.06 % and observed that grain breakage
percentage was increase with forward speed and moisture content. The unthreshed
grain percentage was 0.66 % at 3.25 km/hr at 20 % level moisture content. The
total grain loss was 1.7 % at 4.05 km/hr forward speed at 20 % moisture

(2012) studied that each year a significant portion of the country’s wheat
production wasted at different stages of production. One of the most important
stages of product loss, it is Harvest stage. The first step in planning for
waste reduction wheat harvest estimatethe amount of losses and factors are
identified. In this study during combine wheat harvesting in shahrood, 8
combines selected and evaluated. Results showed that, the mean of loss in 3
samples was 16.1%. This amount is out of the acceptable range. The mean of combine
total loss at wheat harvesting stage was 6.88 %. The most amount of waste
belonged to combine harvester head (5.35%). Crop loss of combine end and
natural loss were 1.24 % and 0.49 %, respectively. Harvesting delay and
unadjusted combines are the most causes of crop loss.

et al., (2014) investigated wheat losses during pre-harvest and harvest stages
in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province of Iran in year 2013. Wheat losses at
harvest stages were measured to wheat varieties in 2 levels of Omid and Alvand
were chosen and Combine types in 2 levels: JD 955 and JD 1165 while were
chosen. The data analyzed using and means were compared using SAS Software’s
and Duncan’s Multiple Range Tests were. The results showed that higher amount
of losses were in the Omid variety and JD 955 with totally 6.83 % (307.4 kg
ha-1) that 10.5 % of them attributed on the cleaning, 34 % on Header, 16.5 % on
Drum, 21 % on impurity and 18% broken grain losses. The lowest losses related
to JD 1165 and Alvand variety wit h 3.97 % (178.66 kg ha-1) that 10 % of them
attributed on the cleaning, 38 % on Header, 13 % on Drum , 22 % on impurity and
17% broken grain losses. Also, average pre-harvest losses amount was in all
fields the study 24.5 kg ha-1 that 9.8 % of total losses represent the measured
total losses Alvand 20.5 kg ha-1 3and the variety of Omid 28.5 kg ha-1

et al., (2016) observed that losses during transportation in the domestic
market account for about 11.8% of the total amount of wheat grain that leaves
the farms. Losses during harvest and storage in cooperatives, which account for
93.2% of total losses, stand out in this context. Transportation operations
account for 6.8% of total losses in the analyzed flow. Based on the results
obtained in this study, strategies are suggested to reduce food losses in
different links of the logistics chain, such as to evidence and quantify the
wheat losses, to manage losses and set reduction targets and to give attention
to transportation service levels.

The crop losses during the process of harvesting, threshing,
transportation and storage of foodgrains are quite significant. The present
study has estimated the extent of losses occurring during post- harvest phase
of wheat crop based on the experience of 120 wheat-growing farmers of various
farm-size categories from Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab. The study
has observed that harvesting losses were more for the late harvested crop due
to shattering of the grains, while losses during transportation, handling and
rodents attack in the case of stored grains have been found insignificant. In
totality, the post-harvest losses have been worked out to be 1.84 per cent
currently. Earlier studies had estimated such losses to be 9.3 per cent during
1971and 3.71-3.85 per cent in 1992. Thus, better post-harvest management has
resulted in minimizing post-harvest losses. The study has suggested timely
harvesting of wheat crop and organization of training programmes for control of
rodents / fungus/pests attack to further curtail the losses at field level.

Material And Method:

Counting of Wheat Grains / m2

 To count the numbers of shattered grains are
collected from different experimental areas from field of PAROKA Farm at
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, these samples were collected in per
meter square of different varieties of wheat at experimental site. These will
be counted by simple counting method / by hand.


will count the stubbles remains in per meter square area after the harvesting
of wheat from the specific areas where we will collect the samples (PAROKA,

Calculation of seed weight

seeding the shattered wheat grains we will put the require stock into weighing
machine for calculate the weight, Example one grain weight (g/1000 seeds).1000
grains = 35 grams if single grains weight is 35mg.

Volume of Seed

density of different grains samples is calculated by dividing the mass (or
weight) of the 35.00 ± 0.05 g by the pycnometer volume (displacement) of the
same grains sample, and is reported in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).
True densities typically range from 1.24 to 1.39 g/cm3 at “as
is” moistures of about 12 to 15%.


Seed Length and width

will measured the length of wheat grains and the width of grains by the using
the Vernier Caliper.

Comparison of seed:

this purpose we will took samples of the same varieties from the stored seed
which is harvested and stored then we will compare these with the samples
collected from the field from PROKA.


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