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Leadership and communication in regards to organization behavior Essay

Organizations have now come to hold that success does non depend merely on their systems or procedures but besides and more so on the effectivity of their work force.

‘Organizational behaviour ‘ is the survey of how people and groups act in an organisation. Its intent is to analyze people-organization relationships and to construct better relationships by accomplishing ‘human aims ‘ , ‘organizational aims ‘ , and ‘social aims ‘ .

Organizational behaviour comprises of a broad scope of subjects nevertheless I will be covering merely a few subjects here which include ‘motivation ‘ , ‘leadership ‘ and ‘communication ‘ in this paper.

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1. Motivation

It is defined as “ The forces within a individual that impact his or her way, strength and continuity of voluntary behavior. ”

Principles of motive

a ) Accuracy of Role Percepts: Goal-setting Theory

In this theory function perceptual experiences are people ‘s beliefs about what they have to carry through on the occupation and how they have to accomplish those ends. Therefore people confronting a undertaking know what has to be done, how long it will take and who has to transport out the undertaking. Hence this function guarantees that the energy devoted to the undertaking will be directed at the right activity and will acquire the right consequences, therefore blowing unneeded clip and energy on unimportant work.

Peoples should be committed to the end so the end should be set carefully because if the end is excessively hard it will be met with less committedness. The end that is set should besides be specific and it should clear up what is of import and what degree of public presentation is required to accomplish the end.

The scheme to carry through the end should be simple otherwise public presentation could diminish. This happens when people switch to a new scheme from one which they were used to. For illustration, if a individual knows one word processing plan he may be loath to seek out a new one as he may experience his work will endure.

Sometimes even committed people have their bounds of public presentation giving you minimal consequences and will therefore non lift to the challenge of carry throughing the end set. Puting a end might work good for a simple occupation but non for one that is complex and hard to prolong. It encourages game playing, in which employees work merely when the occupation is goal-oriented and slow off when it is non.

B ) Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of demand hierarchy

Abraham Maslow ‘s theory of hierarchy of demands explains that there are two degrees of demands – higher and lower – nevertheless the higher degree does non use until all demands on the lower degree are met.

Therefore this means that if you have demands such as personal security or safety your biological demands must foremost be fulfilled. Without slumber we are unable to concentrate on any other demands, so the most of import demands are ranked higher than others.

Maslow ‘s demands are depicted in the form of a pyramid:

1. The demand of self realisation

2. The demand of regard and grasp

3. The demand of propinquity and love

4. The demand of safety & A ; security

5. Biological and physical demands, such as slumber, external respiration, nutrient, gender, etc.

The demand of self realisation – is the most of import demand. In order to accomplish this demand all lower demands should be fulfilled. This demand – ego realisation – is about utilizing your endowments and abilities because you can and you want to. As a consequence of accomplishing this demand you will be able to recognize all your dreams and aspirations in life.

In short Maslow says that we foremost require to see our physical demands being fulfilled merely after which can we accomplish our dreams and ends in life.

However non everyone is able to accomplish all the demands at the lower degrees, you may acquire stuck at a demand and jump it harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theory. If you reach the highest degree – ego realisation – before accomplishing other demands, you will be utilizing your endowments and abilities to counterbalance for deficiency of realisation of other demands. You will be seeking to turn out to others that you are worthy in malice of love and grasp ( the losing demands ) .

Maslow ‘s theory has been criticized in that his methods have been questioned. Not everybody requires all the demands listed in the hierarchy in order to make the concluding demand in a positive mode as some individuals may utilize their endowments and go the best that they are capable of without even any grasp for it. Therefore his theory has non been proven scientifically right.

degree Celsiuss ) Equity theory

J. Stacey Adams calls attempts, wagess and other similar issues in the workplace as ‘inputs ‘ and ‘outputs ‘ . Input signals are fundamentally the attempt we put into our work and end product is what we get in return for our work.

These footings stress that what people put into their work includes factors besides working hours such as clip spent on survey for making, degree of experience, etc and what people get in return includes things besides money such as position and publicity.

If a individual puts in a certain sum of input and receives an end product and feels that the input end product ratio is non that good as compared to others so it leads to de-motivation of employees.

Sometimes giving person a publicity or a wage rise has a de-motivating consequence on others. Some people cut down attempt and application and go disgruntled or sometimes hard. Other people try to better their end products by demanding for higher wage, or looking for another occupation.

Critics have besides argued that people might non merely distinguish equity in footings of the inputs and end products of, but besides in footings of the dominating system that determines these inputs and end products. “ Therefore, in a concern environment, one might experience that his or her wage is just to other employees, but one might see the full wage system as unjust ” ( Carrell and Dittrich, 1978 ) .

Deductions

Equity theory has several deductions for concern directors:

Peoples determine the sum of their inputs and end products. This can intend that a working female parent will accept lower wage in return for more suited on the job hours.

Different employees give more importance to inputs and results. Therefore two employees holding the same experience and making degrees and executing the same work for the same wage may different sentiments about the equity of the trade.

Although it is acceptable for senior staff to have higher wage, there are boundaries to the balance of the degrees of equity and employees can happen heavy executive wage really demotivating.

Staff sentiments of inputs and results of themselves and others may non be wholly right and therefore these demand to be managed efficaciously.

A good illustration of where motive has been used can be seen in the instance of ‘Fortune 500 ‘

‘Fortune 500 ‘ is a list of companies ranked harmonizing to ‘Fortune ‘ magazine depending upon the gross returns of each company. Fortune 500 companies such as ‘General Motors ‘ , ‘Ford Motor ‘ , ‘Hewlett-Packard ‘ , ‘Dell ‘ , ‘Intel ‘ , ‘FedEx ‘ , ‘Microsoft ‘ , etc use assorted motivational techniques to assist actuate their employees. These include:

Promoting a healthy balance between work and personal life in order to actuate them. Employees are offered limitless ill leave, excess holiday clip and more personal yearss so as to guarantee a good balance between work and personal life. This motivational method can hence be used to make a positive environment in the workplace.

‘Fortune 500 ‘ companies besides provide their employees with educational bundles so they are able to finish a college grade or have a new grade to progress in their callings. By utilizing these bundles employees get a better apprehension of the concern environment. Organizations sometimes provide on-the-job preparation to assist employees better work accomplishments.

‘Fortune 500 ‘ companies provide employees with a assortment of inducements to drive them to execute better. These may include fillips on the footing of work public presentation or additions in wage. Non-traditional inducements may include gym price reductions and childcare reimbursement.

2. LEADERSHIP

It is defined as “ influencing, actuating and enabling others to lend towards the effectivity and success of the organisations of which they are members. ”

Principles of leading

a ) Trait theory

Early research on leading found that those persons who occupy leading places have exceeding leading qualities as compared to those who are non leaders.

It was besides found that if you are intelligent and fluent in address so it contributes in a great manner to leading. Properties such as the ability to demo accomplishment and diplomatic negotiations are besides another signifier of traits that ‘successful ‘ leaders appear to hold.

Ralph Stogdill ( 1974 ) concluded that ‘specific forms of traits appear to interact in a complex manner to give advantage to an single seeking a leading place ‘ .

There seem to be many unfavorable judgments to the trait theory.

First research fails to see the model within which leaders find themselves.

Second it encourages inequality between the leaders and the others and does non give any importance to the followings in the leading procedure.

Third, research is determined from a cultural point of position. For illustration Anglo-American and Asiatic bookmans might hold different positions on positive leading traits. In Asia people speak seven different linguistic communications, and are a portion of many different faiths get downing from Buddhism to Hinduism to Christianity and Islam.

Those facets that appear as positive for Anglo-Americans may look as negative facets for Asiatic bookmans.

B ) Path-goal theory

This theory states that motive, occupation satisfaction and the public presentation of the members in an organisation is all affected by the leaders. In the path-goal theory the leader ‘s basic undertaking is to smoothen the employee ‘s way towards the end.

Leaderships use four types of behavior manners to assist employees in taking them towards their ends:

Directing manner: used when he leader has to pass on work and keep public presentation criterions.

Supportive manner: used when there is a demand for the leaders to be concerned about the employees and back up them in any manner possible.

Participative manner: used when leaders want to portion decision-making power with employees.

Achievement-

oriented manner: used when the leaders set actuating ends for their and anticipate high degrees of public presentation and assurance from them.

The leader selects the manner that is best suitable and can assist the employees to accomplish their ends. Leaderships can utilize many different manners to simplify the state of affairs and use the most suited manner.

It is a really hard procedure since it takes into consideration many conditions and analyses those conditions to take the most appropriate leading manner.

It is a existent hard undertaking to analyze the assorted parts of the theory in ‘real organisational state of affairss ‘ .

One of the chief grounds for its unfavorable judgment is that frequently the leader is placed with relatively more duties as compared to the employees. Thus it will increase the dependance of employees on leaders and halter their independent growing.

degree Celsius ) Behaviour theory

“ Behavioral leading is the survey of actions or behaviours that define a leading manner ” . this theory chiefly focuses on the undertakings performed by a good leader. Effectiveness in leading can merely be determined with the right behavior. Theorists have said that in order for a leader to demo this effectivity, their behavior must alter harmonizing to that peculiar state of affairs.

Harmonizing to research programmes ( University of Michigan and Ohio State University 1940 ) , the research workers classified leading behavior into two elements i.e. ‘task behavior ‘ and ‘relationship behavior ‘ .

Task behavior is concerned with finding the bound to which a leader would concentrate more on the quality of production or on the achievement of ends.

These behaviors are besides known as “ production-centred ” and “ task-oriented leading manners ” .

Relationship behavior exists when the leader communicates with his or her followings about their demands and jobs and fulfilling their demands and assisting them overcome their jobs.

However the behavior theory has besides been criticised as it does non demo clearly how leader ‘s behaviors are related to the public presentation outcomes. The relationship between production and relationship behaviors and public presentation consequences is rather flimsy.

It has besides been found that the behaviour attack like the trait attack lacks the ability to happen simple replies to complex inquiries.

Furthermore research workers have concluded that there is no ‘best manner ‘ to take as it is believed that in order to demo flawlessness of a peculiar leading manner it depends on the state of affairs.

An illustration of good leading where the Behaviour theory has been used is in the instance of ‘Costco ‘

Jim Senegal has steered his company ‘Costco ‘ to give impressive consequences for the past five old ages. Costco is believed to be one of the largest warehouse nine concatenation in the United States. Due to its success its grosss and stock are turning at astonishing rates.

Jim is besides better known as being really friendly with all the Costco employees. He is really simple with a name ticket ‘Jim ‘ and besides answers his ain phone and non through a secretary, he besides has a really simple office at central offices which does non even have walls. Other CEOs may pass a batch of money to make up their offices but Jim allows himself a wage of merely $ 350,000 a twelvemonth. He did this because he did non desire to be paid more than the other 12 employees on the floor. Although other CEOs of large companies get wages in the 1000000s he has a one page contract that besides says he can be terminated for non making his work.

His returns are the lowest in the retail industry five times less than Walmart his challenger. Where other CEOs would non wish to be seen gaining less and non making so good, Jim is ‘different ‘ and is loved for this by all his employees.

However if leaders do non act ethically it can hold the undermentioned deductions:

Sometimes leaders behave unethically. This happens because leaders hold their involvement as more of import than other organisational stakeholders or prefer to disregard the harm they cause to others. Leaderships must avoid acting unethically due to the injury it causes others. When leaders behave unethically they risk losing their repute ( the high reputation that employees gain when they behave ethically ) in the workplace.

Stockholders need to protect their repute because their ability to gain a life depends wholly on the manner they behave on twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours, a hebdomad to hebdomad and month to month footing. Not acting ethically can hold serious effects. A leader with a hapless repute will confront trouble happening employment with other companies.

If stakeholders find that leaders are acting unethically so they might decline to put in that peculiar organisation which as a consequence will go unpopular and will therefore put the leader ‘s occupation at hazard.

3. Communication

Communication is defined as “ the procedure by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people ” .

There are 3 sorts of positions on communicating

a ) Functionalist attack

The functionalist attack or mechanistic is considered as the major attack in direction surveies, and sees communicating as a planned or an unplanned action. This attack views the organisation as an single unit and different communicating Acts of the Apostless help in determining and finding the operations of that unit. Communication takes topographic point as a concatenation where the weakest nexus determines the effectivity. The functionalist attack positions communicating as a ‘metaphorical grapevine ‘ through which information can be transmitted between the transmitter and the receiving system. Under this attack employees follow three basic agencies of pass oning information.

Verbal: ‘face to confront section meetings ‘ , ‘briefing groups ‘ ,

‘videoconferencing ‘

Non-verbal: ‘gestures and facial looks ‘

Written: ‘internal memos ‘ , ‘notice board ‘ , ‘newsletter ‘ , ’email ‘

B ) Interpretivist attack

This attack tries to understand human communicating as something in an organisation instead than something that manages an organisation. Interpretivists have said that human existences do non act predictably as claimed by functionalists. Thus we might be able to presume how some people in an organisation may respond to a peculiar message in a peculiar manner. Some employees will make one thing and some other employees something else when provided with information.

degree Celsiuss ) Critical attack

This attack wishes to uncover the hidden but ‘pervasive ‘ power that ‘post-industrial ‘ organisations have over their employees. The functionalist attack focuses more on developing the efficiency of the organisation, whereas the critical attack is more focussed on the communicating procedure in the organisation such as narratives and metaphors as a beginning of power.

Harmonizing to Lisa Chapman the chief rules of communicating to be bore in head are:

Until and unless direction to the full understands and supports the fact that organisations require a batch of communicating, the organisation will stay affected. Very frequently direction witnesses the demand for communicating by holding to witness the deficiency of it.

Internal communicating occurs efficaciously merely with effectual communicating accomplishments, including listening accomplishments, talking accomplishments, oppugning accomplishments and sharing feedback. These can be perfected with regular pattern and the of import result produced is the fact that others value your hearing and you value theirs.

‘Sound run intoing ‘ direction accomplishments excessively guarantee effectual communicating in the workplace to a big extent.

One manner of bettering communicating in an organisation is that each individual should take the duty to inform the other individual when they do n’t understand a peculiar communicating or could propose how that individual could pass on more efficaciously.

With today ‘s progressively varied work force, you sometimes believe that you have successfully conveyed information to the other individual, but you are n’t cognizant of the fact that they interpreted you otherwise than you expected. Unfortunately, you wo n’t be cognizant of this job until you witness a major job originating out of this confusion.

Another frequent job is that the direction sometimes does non value communicating as of import so they ‘re non cognizant of what they have conveyed to whom even when they have expected everyone to cognize the information.

At times direction i.e. leaders and directors assume that merely because they are cognizant of some piece of information, so everyone else is excessively. Normally staff are n’t cognizant of the information that the direction communicates amongst themselves until and unless they intentionally convey information.

Communication jobs can originate when inexperient direction interprets its occupation to be work outing jobs and if they ‘re are n’t any jobs, so there ‘s nil that needs to be communicated.

There are communicating jobs when inexperient direction thinks that their lone occupation is to work out jobs but if there are no jobs in the workplace so the direction does non pass on with the employees taking to deficiency of communicating

An illustration of good communicating where the functionalist attack has been used to the uttermost is that of ‘Starbucks ‘

In 2008 Starbucks get downing confronting jobs as it had experienced slow gross revenues and a high rate of competition. But Starbucks recovered from its jobs and did pull off to go all the manner to success because Howard Schultz was able to successfully further a bipartisan communicating by utilizing the ‘functionalist attack ‘ to pass on with his employees.

He started by foretelling where should ‘Starbucks ‘ be heading and sent memos to all the employees.

He so communicated assorted transmutation programs demoing the alterations that were required to be implemented to assist the company recover. These transmutation programs consisted of three chief aims which were

‘to better the current province of US concern ‘

‘to re-ignite the Starbucks experience ‘ , and

‘To physique for the long term ‘

These programs were executed by Starbucks over a period of clip with the aims that were borne in head by the employees.

As a consequence Starbucks was able to bask a profitable sum of gross revenues because of Howard ‘s singular communicating scheme.

However the functionalist attack could besides be misinterpreted and used adversely as can be seen in the instance of ‘Toyota ‘

Harmonizing to ‘Deep Focus ‘ , an on-line magazine ( January 27, 2010 ) ‘Toyota seemed to be botching the communicating of their safety issue ‘ . Toyota had late recalled a big sum of autos followed by a merchandise gross revenues and production arrest. But a ) They had antecedently released a picture of their CEO Akio Toyoda claiming that this was non true and B ) They communicated the production arrest via the imperativeness.

When something like this happens everyone turns to the maker and besides to each other and when the maker issues a imperativeness release, consumers are forced to discourse the deficiency of action with each other and when these people are connected via societal webs such as ‘Facebook ‘ , the figure of treatments additions.

Where Howard Schultz used the functionalist attack to his fullest advantage Akio Toyoda used this attack to the hurt of the organisation.

Decision

From the above three factors that I have touched on – Leadership, Motivation and Communication – I believe these will assist vastly in bettering the functionality of an organisation. If you have an intelligent leader ( a Manager ) with exceeding qualities who can spur on his work force with the right motivational techniques and is able to pass on with them and through them to the concern universe at big, so you will hold an organisation which will maintain on lifting with a really content work force that will be working difficult towards its success.

Web Mentions

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Book Mentions

Bratton J, Sawchuk P, Forshaw C, Callinan M and Corbett M ( 2010 )

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New York: Routledge

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