MASTER OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (INTERNATIONAL DESIGN)
APPLICATION IN AUTOMOTIVE
Submitted by: Vyshagh Kizhakke Valapil
Batch: MSC MECHANICAL (International
Subject: CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Dr. In?. Krzysztof Krzysztofowicz
Word count: 2416
Date of Submission: 20/1/2018
TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction to composites ………………………………………………
Why composite …………………………………………………………..
History of composite ……………………………………………………..
.Composites and Automobiles ……………………………………………..
Why Composite materials in Automobiles ………………………………… 8
Scope of Composites in MordernAuto Industries …………………………..13
Future of Composite.………………………………………………………..16
INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE
A composite material can be
defined as the consolidation of two or more materials whose outcome has better
properties than those of the individual components used alone. In compare to
metallic alloys, each material holds separate chemical, physical, and
mechanical properties. The two elements are a combined and a matrix is formed. The
main advantages of composite materials are that they have high strength and
stiffness, combined with low density, when compared with bulk materials,
allowing for a weight reduction in the finished part.
Composites are multifunctional
materials having surprizing mechanical and physical properties which can be modified
to meet the requirements of a particular application. Many composites also show
great resistance to wear and tear, corrosion, and high-temperature exposure.
These special characteristics provides a mechanical engineer with design
opportunities which is not possible with conventional materials. Composites
technology also makes possible the use of an entire group of solid materials,
ceramics, in applications for which previous versions are unsuited because of
their great strength scatter and poor resistance to mechanical and thermal
shock. Additionally, many manufacturing processes for composites are well modified
to the fabrication of large, complex structures, which allows consolidation of parts,
reducing manufacturing costs
Composites are a group of
materials which are now used extensively, not only in the aerospace industry,
but also in a large and increasing number of commercial mechanical engineering
applications, such as internal combustion engines; machine components; thermal
management and electronic packaging; automobile, train, and aircraft structures
and mechanical components, such as brakes, drive shafts, flywheels, tanks, and
pressure vessels; dimensionally stable components; process industries equipment
requiring resistance to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear;
offshore and onshore oil exploration and production; marine structure.
It should be mentioned that biological structural materials
occurring in nature are typically some type of composite. Common examples are
wood, bamboo, bone, teeth, and shell. Additional, use of artificial composite
materials is not new. Straw-reinforced mud bricks were employed in biblical
times. Using modern terminology, discussed later.
material under microscope
HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIo
Fiber composites are extremely strong for their weight. By refining them
many characteristics can be improved. A common material is Chopped strand mat,
is quite flexible compared to say a plywood. However it will bend a long way
more than the plywood before yielding. Stiffness is different from Strength. A
carbon fiber composite on the other hand, will have a stiffness of many times
that of mild steel of the same thickness
A standard Fiber glass laminate has a specific gravity compared to Alloy
or steel when you then start looking at Carbon composites, strengths can be
many times that of steel, but only a fraction of the weight.
The ability for composites to withstand fire will be improved. There is
two types of systems to be considered:
Fire Retardant –
Are self-extinguishing composites, usually made with chlorinated resins and
additives such as Antimony trioxide. These release CO2 when burning so when the
flame source is removed, the self extinguish.
Fire Resistant –
More difficult and made with the likes of Phenolic Resins. These are difficult
to use, are cured with formaldehyde, and require a high degree of post curing
to achieve true fire resistance.
?Fiber glass Developments Ltd produced the Insulator Support straps for
the Trans Rail main trunk electrification. The straps, although only 4mm thick,
meet the required loads of 22kN, as well as easily meeting insulation
CHEMICAL & WEATHERING RESISTANCE
?Composite products have good weathering properties and resist the
attack of a wide range of chemicals. This depends entirely on the resin used in
manufacturing, but by careful selection of resistance to all but the most
extreme conditions can be achieved. Due to this composites are used in the
manufacture of chemical storage tanks, pipes, chimneys and ducts, boat hulls
and vehicle bodies.
LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
?Fiberglass has been involved in the development and production of
specialized meat containers which maintain prime cuts of chilled meat at the
correct temperature for Export markets. They are manufactured using the RTM
process, with special reinforcing and foam inserts.
Fiber glass produces several models of fuel pump covers for Fuel quip. Fiber
glass is an ideal material for producing items of this type for many reasons,
including being very economical.
History of Composite
During the course of history, humans have used various type
materials. One of the most primitive uses of material was by the ancient
Mesopotamians around 3400 B.C., when they glued wood strips at different angles
to create plywood.
In about 1200 AD, the
Mongols created the first composite bows made from a combination of wood,
bamboo, bone, cattle tendons, horns, bamboo and silk bonded with natural pine
resin. The bows were small, very powerful, and extremely accurate. Composite
Mongolian bows were the most feared weapons on earth until the invention
effective firearms in the 14th century.
Egyptians used of Cartonnage, layers of linen or papyrus soaked in
plaster, for death masks. Archeologists have establish that natural
composite building materials were in used in Egypt and Mesopotamia, since
ancient builders and artisans used straw to strengthen mud bricks, pottery, and
boats around 1500 BC.
From the 1870’s through
the 1890’s, a revolution was occurring in chemistry. Polymerization allowed new
synthetic resins to be modified from a liquid to solid state in a cross-linked
molecular structure. Early synthetic resins included celluloid, melamine
In the early 1900’s, plastics such as vinyl, polystyrene, phenolic and
polyester were developed. As these improvements strengthening was needed to
provide the strength and rigidity.
Bakelite is an early groundbreaking plastic. It is a thermosetting
phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a removal reaction of phenol with
formaldehyde. It was developed by Belgian-born chemist Leo Baekeland in New
York in 1907.
It was one of the first plastic made. Bakelite was used for its electrical no
conductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators, radio and
telephone casings, and such varied products as kitchenware, jewelry, and pipe
stems, and children’s toys. Bakelite was designated a National Historic
Chemical Landmark in 1993 by the American Chemical Society in recognition of
its significance as the world’s first synthetic plastic.
The concept of “composite” building
construction has existed since ancient times. Civilizations throughout the
world have used basic elements of their surrounding environment in the
fabrication of dwellings including mud/straw and wood/clay. “Bricks”
were made from mud and straw with the mud acting much like the resin in FRP
composite construction and the straw acting as reinforcing to hold the brick
together during the drying (and shrinkage) process of the brick. In the
“wattle and daub” method of constructing walls, vertical wooden
stakes (wattles) were woven with horizontal twigs and branches and then daubed
with clay or mud. This is one of the oldest known methods for making a
In 1930 Henry Ford attempted to use Soya oil to produce a Phenolic resin and
thence to produce a Wood filled composite material for car bodies. In 1940 –
flax a flax reinforced spitfire fuselage was made at Duxford, Cambridgeshire.
In the 1950a when glass fibre
reinforcement material and cold setting polyester resins commercially available,
this put the manufacture of compound curved streamlined automobile bodies into
reach of low volume, low capital companies. The first use composite by a high
volume manufacturer are was probably the 1954.
In 1960s low volume and high value specialist’s
sports car were manufactured. Example: The Reliant Scimitar.
In the late 1990s,
Rover group was working very closely with researches at the Warwick
Manufacturing Group at the University of Warwick. The collaboration and then
SALVO (Structurally Advanced Lightweight Vehicle Objective) had aim of
providing on new materials, manufacturing technologies and facilitating the
integration of such materials and technologies into volume automotive
manufacturing in the new millennium.
WHY COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN AUTOMOBILES?
· To improve fuel efficiency by reducing mass of the vehicle.
· To improve safety and crashworthiness.
· To enhance styling and part consolidation.
· To provide aerodynamic design.
Effect of reduction in
weight (using composite) on the cost manufacture and fuel efficiency of vehicle
• Automobile- 5-7
table above shows the values of fuel consumption and fuel efficiency for
different types and vehicles weight.
2. COMPOSTIE TO IMPROVE
SAFETY AND CRASH WORTHINESS
The crashworthiness design fundamental includes the below points
Maintain occupant survivable volume or occupant
Restrain occupants (within the space)
Limit occupants deceleration within tolerable levels
Minimize post-crash hazards
Specific Energy of Absorption
Materials is said to have good crashworthiness or safe if it has
absorption of energy resulting out of crash.
2. STYLING AND PART CONSOLIDATION
The use of composites (PMCs) in styling of interiors of a vehicle has
resulted in enhancing the aesthetic look and also in consolidating the parts to
fit into Small available space inside the vehicle. Some examples are given
CFRP OF FORD INNER DECK
SMC (SHEET MOULDING COMPOUND) FOR GM/ FORD PICKUP TRUCK
EFFECT OF USING COMPOSITIE ON AERODYNAMIC
in aerodynamic design of the body of Automobile to reduce air drag.
The table below shows the energy losses due to
various resistance to the movement of the vehicle.
shows that every 2% increase in Cd (avg. drag coefficient) is expected to
enhance fuel economy by 1.4mpg (.6%)
SCOPE OF COMPOSITE IN
MODERN AUTO INDUSTRIES:
The automotive companies in today’s modern world are forced to look for
new ways and innovations in manufacturing cars/trucks due to fierce
competition. The cars today should have all the comforts needed by the customer
at low cost which led to the use of composite materials in the construction of
body, interiors, chassis, hoods, electrical components etc.
The Pie chart below shows the use of composites in an automobile
PROBLEMS NEEDED TO OVERCOME TO BUILD A COMPOSITE CAR:
assumption (soft tooling)
for energy absorption
aided engineering (CAE) capability
THE FUTURE OF COMPOSITE:
In most cases polymer matrix
composites (PMC) are in competition against existing metal components. In the
case of automotive applications this means steel and aluminium. Composite use
on our current vehicles looks set to increase substantially (market trends
Suggest up to 10% growth per year in automotive markets) and the use of such
components will give the OEM a customer benefit that will be hard to ignore.
The successful exploitation of composite materials may well give motor
manufacturers the edge they require to stay ahead of the marketplace and it is
up to each OEM to ensure they remain at the forefront of this technology.
Today it is easy to be optimistic about the
future use of composite materials in the automotive industry. However, it would
be a big mistake strategically to assume that the substitution of metals with
composites will be unavoidable and automatic. There is no doubt that the number
of composite material applications within the automotive sector will increase,
but they will never completely replace metals. Composite materials have
enormous potential, but the composites industry will need to demonstrate their
advantages for each application and compete with advocates of metals. Ideally,
designers should seek to work with both materials without prejudice, exploiting
their best characteristics for a given application. If this approach is to be
adopted, special attention will be required when considering the joining of
composite and metal parts. Another essential requirement is the development of
the tools required for product design, simulation, manufacturing and regulation.
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Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites