Virtuality continuum is explained conceptually by Paul Milgram (1994) with a
line where at the start real environment is found and the second phenomenon on
the line is augmented reality (AR) and next experience is augmented virtuality
and at last Virtual environment commonly known as Virtual Reality (VR).
Augmented Reality differs from Virtual Reality
where in the latter everything is virtual, both the models and the world.
Augmented Reality offers the opportunity to add virtual objects to a real environment
and to overlay real objects in the real world. An example could be a real table
with virtual objects such as a virtual lamp standing on the table (Azuma 1997,
2-3). It could also be a virtual painted wall to overlay a wall in the real
AR could also be applied through a video of the
real world where virtual objects are being embed. It is much more difficult to
control a real environment than a virtual one therefore challenges exists doing
this interactively in an AR system.
Three characteristics would define AR:
“combines real and virtual objects in a real environment, registers (aligns)
real and virtual objects with each other and runs interactively, in three
dimensions, and in real time.” (Azuma et. Al 2001, 34-35). This definition does
not limit the technology to any sense by including such as sight or hearing,
due to the potential of the technology that it will be connected to most of our
senses. The compatible visual displays is not mentioned, such as head
According to Van Krevelen and Poelman (2010)
the demand for technology when it comes to AR are more intense than VR,
therefore takes much longer to establish than VR. The key components to be able
to create AR system have been unchanged since 1960. Displays, trackers and
graphics computers and software are still important in AR system.
Augmented Reality applies some of the senses
that could be find in the human body. Sight and hearing is two senses that is
described. There is three ways to visualise augmented reality, Video
see-through, Optical see-through and projective.
When using augmented reality in the form of
Video see-through, the device is showing a videoclip and where the virtual
information is merged within the video. This is the cheapest and easiest to implement.
Optical see-through works through transparent LCD mirrors and lenses which
merge the visible real environment with virtual added objects. Projective is
working with the same principle as optical see-through but not with such lenses
technology instead a projected screen is making the merged virtual information
reality is being considered as a medium often compared to TV, radio etc. just
like augmented reality, and is seen as the latest of the communication technology
together with AR. Virtual reality can be explained by four key elements, those
are a virtual world, immersion, sensory feedback (responding to user input),
and interactivity (Sherman & Craig, 2003).
experiences gathered from senses such as sight, smell, hearing and smelling, an
illusion was able to be generated and together with that create virtual worlds
where one can use and navigate in. Virtual reality (VR) is the end of the
continuum described above where everything is synthetic. The world that is seen
through devices is synthetic just as the objects created inside the world.
world is the surrounding of a communication. It is not necessary to have a VR
system to experience a virtual world. An author can build up a virtual world
only by words and allows the reader’s mind to imagine the world. It could be a
film script without any performances being a made or a book that let you create
your own perception. When this script is brought out by the actors and the
stage sets etc. first then we experience the virtual world. VR works in the
same way where the description of the world is written and not yet viewed with
images until the user can immerse to the world through a medium.
is defined as “immersion into an alternate reality or point of view” this
definition could be explained that anyone could perceive the world we currently
live in their own way, seeing current world with a different perspective.
Imagining another world could be like a dream where imaginary places and human
beings is created just with our minds, limits is not given any consideration
and you are given super powers for instance. This alternative world is created
by our imagination and it is what novelists, composers and creative individuals
create in their minds.
from another point of view could be described by thinking of any medium like
movies for example, then the director of the movie is creating his own
imagination into a movie where you are able to take part of. This kind of media
is only one-way communicated, from the director to the participant. Other
mediums like pictures, radio, television and animation is also a creation which
offers you immersion of alternate point of view (Sherman &
mentioned earlier as a one-way communication where the audience is not allowed
to move the vantage point inside the world for instance, VR is enabling this
function and is allowing the user to move the body to affect the virtual world.
Imagined Reality is referred to our experiences in thoughts or dreams. It could
also be the secondhand experience in novels, films, radio and more where we
immerse in someone else’s thoughts. Physical reality is the world we consider with
our senses and Virtual Reality is the medium that allows imagined reality, but
also activates more of our senses which brings the medium closer to the
Physical reality. While VR is synthetic then danger that could be found with
physical reality would be reduced.
system is based upon the third key element, sensory feedback. The users are
receiving sensory feedback based on their physical location and the information
is sent to the users’ sight. To make this possible the VR system is recording
the movement from the user.
To make the
virtual reality experience feel as real as possible then a fourth key element
is presented. Interactivity which lets the user act and the system will respond
to that action. In counter strike for example a console command is available
for commands to affect the playing experience, a command could be changing the
gravity for the character in game and that is an interactivity to make the game
more compelling and this is often referred as interactive fiction, it is not
necessary that a computer graphics is required. Interactive fiction is defined
as the ability to interact somehow like picking up-, dropping objects and
flipping switches and more. The VR experience is more related to changing the
vantage point for instance or moving around inside the virtual environment and
this is a dynamic development with this system because of the demand of input
sensors to the VR system, changing the worlds is limited and is changed by
environment is an extension of interactivity and that allows people to interact
inside a virtual world together through virtual object, called avatar, that
represent the user/player. This is often seen in games such as counter strike
where this have been implemented and there are two teams fighting each other.
Collaboration is existing within the team and communication is also possible,
this opportunity is called multipresence. This feature is available in VR
experience where an assembly leader could watch and participate virtually together
with the operators in an assembly from a distance. This is not something unique
and parallels is drawn to a phone call when two parties is participating in an
audio environment (Sherman & Craig, 2003).