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Reviewing Theories of Leadership and Motivation Essay

Harmonizing to Griffin and Moorehead, ( 2009 ) , motive can be defined as the grade to which relentless attempt is given to accomplish any peculiar purpose or aim. The features of motive are as follows:

Attempt: this is the first feature of motive which relates to the grade of attempt given to carry on any peculiar occupation. This attempt must be related to the suitableness of the purposes and aims being pursued ( Rutledge, 2008 ) .

Continuity: the 2nd characteristic is related to the avidity of the people to maintain making any work unless it is non complete ( Grant, 2008 ) .

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Direction: this is measured in footings of the continuity in attempt which is applicable associating to the aims being highlighted ( Rutledge, 2008 ) .

Goals: there are two sorts of aims that can be pursued at the same clip. These are company ‘s end and individual ‘s purpose. If these are non compatible ; they can take to diverse results.

Hodgkinson and Ford ( 2008 ) stated that it is necessary to separate between motive and public presentation. Certain factors such as degree of accomplishment, aptitude and understanding the undertaking may hold a negative influence on public presentation. On the contrary, a worker can be motivated through his opportunism which is non at wholly related to the organisational aims. There are factors in the external environment such as wage, fillip, supervising, other benefits which can actuate people and this is termed as extrinsic motive. In contrast, they can besides be motivated by the relationship between the undertaking and the employee and this is termed as intrinsic motive. However, these factors exist at the same clip but it is of import to distinguish between them.

2.1.1 Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow came up with a theory which states that people have five sets of demands which can be categorised consequently. Harmonizing to this theory, people satisfy their basic demands first and so seek to accomplish other fulfillments ( Moran, 2009 ) . These demands are as follows:

Physiological demands: the demand for nutrient, vesture, shelter are the rudimentss which people try to achieve and it is possible to accomplish through being a portion of the society and keeping a societal web. Personal comfort and satisfaction are the intrinsic values and the community or society is portion of the extrinsic values ( Preziosi, 2007 ) .

Safety demands: security, stableness and a planned environment are portion of this demand. People attempt to keep occupation security, pension, insurance, autonomy and a comfy occupation topographic point in order to guarantee the consistence of the benefits. The chief intent is to keep the advantages or employment demands and non to concentrate on the long-run aims of the organisation. Peace of head is needed and is included in the personal motive ( Montana and Charnov, 2008 ) .

Relationship demands: friendly relationship, socialisation, love, fondness and company are portion of this degree where people value their personal intrinsic accomplishments. This demand is automatically fulfilled when a individual leads in a civil society. Different type of nines such as individual nine, societal nines provides chances for the people to achieve this degree of satisfaction ( Grant, 2008 ) .

Esteem needs: this degree of demands refer to independence, grasp, assurance and acknowledgment by others where persons are persuaded by the internal demands and the external environment is needed to acquire acknowledgment than to acquire wagess that are mercenary. The intrinsic values are more important than the outside influence at this degree. The issue of self-importance plants in this instance ( Zepeda, 2007 ) .

Self-actualization: this degree is hard to specify. Happiness can be achieved by making things otherwise for different people and it besides vary among people with their different values and thoughts. For illustration, a rich adult male can non be motivated at this degree by gaining more money when he has adequate. Peoples in this degree demand to accept world and other factors in order to accomplish self-actualization. In instance of organisation, creativeness and growing can be the factors. As an single graduated table upwards the more wagess or incentives shift to the internal demand from the external environment. It is besides hard for people to accomplish motive as stuff wages become less relevant and internal wagess get more hard to cover with. Furthermore, it is of import for organisations to accomplish better public presentation and in order to make so ; the employees ‘ satisfaction degree demands to be provided by the house ( Daft, 2007 ) .

2.1.2 McClelland ‘s Theory of Needs

The celebrated psychologist David McClelland came up with a theory of demands. He nevertheless, did non see motive as hierarchal ( Darmon, 2007 ) . He has identified three degrees of demand degrees and they are stated below:

Need for accomplishment: in this degree, people desire to transport out undertakings that are really disputing for them. The purposes that are set by them can take to calculated hazard and they prefer their public presentation feedback by which they can modify their undertakings and are successful ( Miller, 2008 ) .

Need for association: in this state of affairs people want to keep antiphonal and companionable relationships. They prefer to wish others and besides prefer to be liked by others. They can easy construct societal webs which may take them in keeping their demands at this degree ( Randhawa, 2007 ) .

Need for power: people who desire to hold a strong clasp and influence others belong to this class. Moran ( 2009 ) argued that this degree of demand for power relates to Maslow ‘s regard needs where power is seen as a manner to pull attending and build personal praise.

The growing form between the extrinsic and intrinsic wagess do non hold the same significance like the other theories discussed as the theory is non-hierarchical. Harmonizing to McClelland ‘s theory, people get motivated by executing good in their workplace which meets their demands and these demands can be met by any of the three classs discussed above ( Shahjahan, 2007 ) .

2.2 Leadership

There has been a uninterrupted contention as to whether leaders are born or are they created. It is a given fact that human behavior is really complicated and is built up of a batch of features. These traits have an influence on the motivational degrees and the theories of leading will be controversial in the hereafter as good. However, many research workers like Pride, Hughes and Kapoor ( 2008 ) , believe that leading can be developed. Leadership can be termed as ‘the force per unit area or influence by person that is put upon others to accomplish a peculiar aim in an organisation ‘ ( Randhawa, 2007 ) . It is believed that leaders are capable of looking at assorted facets and analyse a state of affairs that can act upon others in acquiring a occupation done. They besides look for chances and attack purposes in a practical mode. They besides have a positive consequence on others who are willing to assist them due to similar demands for achievement. Other employees gain assurance in their ability and therefore the leaders get adequate freedom and authorization. Leadership is seen to hold two different aspects- the individual who has the ability to influence and the 1s who are influenced by the leader. Leaderships can be successful depending on the environment and state of affairs where they exist. Chiefly two types of leaders are seen: emergent leaders and assigned leaders. Emergent leaders are those leaders who have gained their places through their accomplishments, act uponing abilities and expertness. On the other manus, assigned leaders are the 1s who get the power in exerting influence via assignment. Both of these types of leaders meet different maps. They are able to supply emotional and societal support to the group by back uping them, listening and promoting in constructing up their squad and this is called social-emotional support. Another factor is to guarantee waies and aid to the group members in finishing their work. Darmon ( 2007 ) stated that successful leaders have the potency in placing and associating the suited scheme at a suited clip. Therefore, any group that fails to understand the purposes and aims of the company they work for ; will non be successful towards a social-economic attack. Even squads that experience struggle internally is in desperate demand of constructing up accomplishments. They may react negatively in order to better public presentation degree ( Miller, 2008 ) .

2.2.1 House ‘s Path-Goal Theory

Harmonizing to Montana and Charnov ( 2008 ) , the most important undertakings of different leaders should take on to the way through which different purposes and aims can be achieved through subordination. Therefore, successful leaders create a relation between single purposes and company ‘s purposes. Leadership is all about lifting squad public presentation through the motivational factors and the leader must guarantee occupation satisfaction and they provide a clear position of how the employees can achieve wagess based on their public presentation ( Singh, 2009 ) . House ‘s theory relates four types of leader behavior. These include:

Directing behavior: this involves work under a agenda, keeping a consistence in the criterion of public presentation and allowing the employees know what is being expected from their work ( Marshall and Coughlin, 2010 ) .

Supportive behavior: friendly and concerned attack is being displayed by a leader in this class with pleasant interpersonal relationships ( Lussier and Achua, 2009 ) .

Participative behavior: leaders who support and conduct this sort of behavior do audience with their employees and besides take their sentiments under consideration ( ( Marshall and Coughlin, 2010 ) .

Achievement-orientated behavior: These sorts of behaviour encourage employees to set more attempts and seek to achieve higher degree of achievement. The leaders achieving this sort of behavior are confident with their employees and their aims ( Lussier and Achua, 2009 ) .

2.2.2 Situational Factors

The basic features of the employees and the external environmental factors have an influence on the success rate of leading accomplishments. First of wholly, an employee ‘s characteristics can hold an consequence on the accomplishment degrees which is expected. Second of all, the single demands of the employees need to be fulfilled in order to hike their public presentation and motivational degree. Then the employees ‘ aptitude and capablenesss will hold an consequence on their response to others working with them and their public presentation. There are some environmental factors which have an impact on leading. It is of import for the leaders to be qualified and knowing in deriving trueness and group assurance. The manner and form of the leader is besides of import and have an influence on the group behavior. Furthermore, the lucidity of the undertakings, urgency and employees ‘ empathy will act upon motive and public presentation. Leaderships besides need to be at the right topographic point and at the right clip ( Randhawa, 2007 ) .

2.2.3 Vroom ‘s and Jago ‘s Leadership Styles

Lussier and Achua ( 2009 ) studied that Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago came up with three types of leading behavior and these are-autocratic, advisory, or group decision-making manner.

Autocratic: the leader tries to work out a job or take a determination by utilizing all the information he or she has at that clip. The leader can besides take the group members consultation sing the affair but nevertheless the determination doing procedure will be wholly up to the leader. The determination that is taken by the leader is so passed on to the group members for executing ( Robbins, 2009 ) .

Advisory: in this instance the leader takes the employees say sing the job and takes their part to the job every bit good. The employees ‘ engagement relating to the survey may or may non hold an impact on the decision-making procedure. The leaders hence, have the right in doing the concluding determination ( Lussier and Achua, 2009 ) .

Group: the leader portions the job identified with the squad members and take their overall input towards the job and so attempts to understand the solution. The leader in this instance does non seek to act upon the input given by the tea members and accept any solution that the squad members suggest in work outing the job ( Robbins, 2009 ) .

This attack depends on the job at manus. The leader should hold a mark in doing a determination which is best for the company and besides maximize the employees ‘ support and coordination.

Chapter 3: Reviewing Theories Associating to Cultural Diversity

Harmonizing to research workers like Marshall and Coughlin ( 2010 ) , there are six different ways through which companies can capitulate competitory advantage with the being of efficient direction and cultural diverseness. In order to cut down the reverses of diverseness in workplaces which create a hinderance in the accomplishment of the purposes and aims, organisations must guarantee to disregard all drawbacks and maximize the advantages of diverseness. Multicultural organisations are those houses where people from a non-traditional background can hold their complete possible part and achieve success. There are some peculiar features of a multicultural organisation. The first 1 is Pluralism which states that all the cultural group show regard, value and learns from each other. The 2nd characteristic of a multi-cultural house is that a decently structured and integrated cultural groups including the minorities in all the degrees of the organisation. Third, no room for fondness and favoritism should be given. Fourthly, struggle associating to race, sex and nationality should be avoided at all degrees. Last, all the minority and bulk group members should be good cognizant of the organisations ‘ purposes and aims.

Harmonizing to Preziosi ( 2007 ) , there are some critical factors or constituents that are needed to alter a traditional company to a multicultural house.

Leadership: it is of import for the top direction to supply support and proper committedness to keep cultural diverseness in an organisation. This can be related to House ‘s path-goal theory of the leaders ‘ supportive behavior. Therefore, all the leaders must concentrate on diverseness at workplace in order to achieve competitory advantage over their challengers. Leaderships must do certain that they get successful in taking all the barriers caused by the cultural differences at workplaces including workgroup coherence, interpersonal struggle, and consistent actions and so on. Leaderships who have strong personal strands on the procedure of altering all the traditional undertakings in to a multicultural house can accomplish success ( Robbins, 2009 ) . Furthermore, it is of import for such leaders to make function model behavior in forepart of the employees so that they can convey alterations easy. Leaderships besides must do certain that they provide aid to their employees or squad members to do all the undertakings done and so the company can achieve competitory advantage over their challengers. Successful leaders need to do certain that they are able to manage all the fiscal, proficient and human resources. They need to see whether these countries are portion of the corporate scheme and are systematically discussed in their meetings ( Kreitner, 2008 ) . Important facets of the human resource direction such as alteration in the fillip constructions and public presentation assessment are needed to be considered by them. Furthermore, the leaders besides need to carry on research as to whether the undertakings done by the work force has an influential impact on the company ‘s public presentation. They can therefore place the countries that the employees lack and the Fieldss where they need to be educated. These can be related to the Vroom and Jago ‘s leading manners. Therefore it is of import for the leaders to transport out research work at different times in order to keep diverseness at workplace ( Pride, Hughes and Kapoor, 2008 ) .

Motivation: this is a really of import facet as employees need to be invariably motivated in order to be successful. In a new multi-cultural environment, it is of import for houses to look out on the ways of actuating their work force. Training is one of the cardinal ways in promoting the employees to execute better at their workplaces. Pull offing and valuing diverseness ( MVD ) preparation is one of the important points ( Moran, 2009 ) . Awareness and skill-based preparation are really popular signifiers of developing the employees. Awareness preparation helps in constructing an apprehension and the privation for and the significance of valuing and pull offing diverseness at workplace. This type of preparation helps the employees to be cognizant about issues associating to stereotypes and cross-cultural inconsideration. On the other manus, skill-based preparation Teachs workers to keep cultural divergency at their workplace. These two types are frequently emerged in an organisation to keep diverseness. However, developing employees is an on-going procedure as there is a changeless change taking topographic point in the environment. Another of import factor that needs to be looked upon is the demand for supplying feedback to the top direction. As leaders provide counsel to the employees, it is the employees ‘ responsibility to demo their undertakings to their directors and inquire for feedback and aid. Like all the other direction attempts, answerability is hence needed to command work on diverseness. The features of actuating the employees ( attempt, continuity and way ) sing diverseness demand to be met by the employees in order to keep divergency at workplace ( Zepeda, 2007 ) .

Chapter 4: A Case of Leadership and Motivation

This peculiar survey considered the instance of Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester UK. The hotel provides the one of the best options for travelers coming into the metropolis for concern or leisure purpose offering a good figure of fantastic suites. Harmonizing to the referees, the hotel stands up among the best epicurean hotels in the metropolis located merely 14.7 kilometers from the Centre of Manchester. Radisson Blu Hotels and Resorts are an built-in portion of the Rezidor Hotel Group that opened its first hotel in the twelvemonth 1960. Now they operate in more than 60 states with an estimated figure of 87,000 suites. This goes on to show their astonishing growing rate in the hotel industry ( radissonblu.co.uk ) . The inquiry is “ how do they make it? ”

Kurt Ritter, the president and CEO of the Group revealed that their attempt to supply a 100 % satisfaction warrant to their clients played an of import function in their success in the hotel industry. He singled out their trade name of service they intend to offer every clip to the clients with the “ Yes I can ” spirit. In an interview, he stated that the key in hotel concern is to supply first-class service. Each and every one of the employees has to be on their toes to carry through the demands and wants to their clients ; which means public presentation degrees have to be ever top-quality. As a consequence, motive and leading techniques are highly important in these types of organisations ( rezidor.com ) .

The research worker undertook a survey affecting 50 employees in Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester utilizing a questionnaire study as an instrument for this survey ( attached in the appendix ) . An inductive attack was employed as the research worker reviewed the literature foremost on the topic of leading and motivational theories and theoretical accounts and so went on to analyze the observations.

4.1 Datas Collected from the Employees

Fair salary

As per the graphical representation, 50 % of the respondents believed that they receive a just wage from their organisation. 24 % declared that they strongly believed it. Few remained impersonal. A really little figure of them revealed that they were non content with the salary construction of Radisson Blu Hotel.

Salary relates to money and falls under physical demands in Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs where it is described as one of the rudimentss employees look for at the workplace ( Preziosi, 2007 ) . The above statistics show that Radisson Blu Hotel ‘s employees are rather satisfied with their salary construction.

Comfort at the workplace

The rightward incline of the curve indicates the positive response from the employees as most of them clearly stated their satisfaction with the comfort degree at the workplace. Having a strong grasp sing the affair suggests that Radisson Hotel provides a really good working environment for their employees. Maslow besides talked approximately this every bit good in the safety needs in order to take the force per unit area out of the employees and allow them work at peace ; which relates to personal motive ( Montana and Charnov, 2008 ) .

Interaction Opportunities

A assorted reaction was recorded when asked about the chances the employees of Radisson Blu Hotel acquire for interactions among themselves. 40 % stated agreed to the statement that the Hotel provides them good sum of chances and another 41 % revealed that they lacked this chance. The remainder remained impersonal. Harmonizing to Maslow, edifice dealingss within an organisation grows assurance among the employees and hence has a important consequence on their motive degrees ( Grant, 2008 ) .

Radisson Blu Hotel could hold a expression at this issue since the Numberss reveal that it needs attending. Making different sorts of nines, such as individual nine, societal nines, etc could better the state of affairs.

Supervisors ‘ Feedback

When asked to rate their supervisors ‘ feedback, bulk of the respondents ‘ reactions were positive, as can be seen from the above illustration. There were besides few who mentioned that it was non up to the grade and needful betterments. Supervisors ‘ feedback is an indispensable tool as discussed earlier in McClelland ‘s theory of demands. He mentioned that a better feedback communicating has many advantages. A uninterrupted feedback system would let directors to guarantee that his/her subsidiaries are ever on path. It can besides construct up their relationship between them every bit good as increase the employees ‘ assurance degrees taking to increased motivational degrees and public presentation betterments ( Miller, 2008 ) .

Supervisors ‘ Attempt to Supply Challenging Tasks

The statistics demonstrate that most of the respondents appreciated their supervisors ‘ effort to supply them disputing undertakings. Although there were rather a few who thought otherwise saying that they wanted their supervisors to seek and do a greater attempt to supply them disputing undertakings in the organisation. David McClelland underlined the importance of supplying disputing undertakings to the employees in an organisation. He mentioned that the employees feel highly good when a challenging undertaking is accomplished. They are ever lament to accomplish them in order to turn out their worth to the organisation. As a consequence, supplying disputing undertakings works as a motivational tool for directors ( Randhawa, 2007 ) .

Full Authority At Work

More than 70 % of the respondents claimed that they are frequently trusted with full authorization at work. There were rather a few who voiced out their dissatisfaction with the issue. Harmonizing to Moran ( 2009 ) , power and authorization at work has the possible to actuate employees greatly. It has its good sides and bad sides. The good sides involve taking disconnected 2nd determinations to fulfill clients or work out any jobs related to clients, cut downing directors ‘ force per unit area at work with less of import affairs, improved employee motive, etc. The bad sides include incorrect determination doing under force per unit area taking to damaged assurance, repute, etc.

Employees ‘ functions in the organisation clarified by the directors

It is obvious from the graphical representation that the directors of Radisson Blu Hotel is making a dramatic occupation at clear uping employees of what is to be expected from them on a regular basis. This relates to House ‘s Path Theory that put frontward four types of leading ; among which one of it was directing behavior that involves work under a agenda, keeping a consistence in the criterion of public presentation and allowing the employees know what is being expected from their work ( Marshall and Coughlin, 2010 ) .

Extent to which employees ‘ positions are considered in the determination manking procedure

Bulk of the participants mentioned that their suggestions are rather frequently taken into consideration by their supervisors in the organisation whenever there is a demand. A few of them stated that their sentiments counted for nil and that they were absolutely disappointed with the issue.

Supervisors take the concluding determination

When asked about whether their supervisors take the concluding determinations, about every one of the respondents confirmed that their supervisors get to state the last word about every clip. This relates to the literature mentioned by Vroom ‘s and Jago, saying that when a leader who takes each and every one of his/her employees ‘ positions into consideration but takes the concluding determination by himself/herself, it is known as advisory leading ( Lussier and Achua, 2009 ) .

Chapter 5: Decisions and Recommendations

The survey revealed that both leading and motive trades with people ‘s behavior. To understand this behavior in a better manner, the research worker explored some of the celebrated theories and theoretical accounts of leading and motive that assisted all the manner while transporting out the probe refering Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester. The theories and theoretical accounts came in ready to hand while carry oning the analyses every bit good.

The findings reveal that leading effectivity and motive go manus in manus when it comes to the attempt given by companies to heighten productiveness and efficiency at the workplace. Radisson Blu Hotel ‘s leading techniques include supplying employees a regular bipartisan feedback, disputing undertakings, giving a sensible sum of authorization, clear uping functions and outlooks. They are besides practising to take employees ‘ positions into consideration. Overall, their leading manner can be compared with the advisory leading mentioned by Vroom and Jago. Because of this leading, employees feel comfy at the workplace, experience secured and confident, experience of import and know their worth to the organisation and bask their work in the procedure.

5.1 Recommendations

Human resource directors, employers and other leaders in different companies are motivated to promote their workers and expression after for their well-being. This can do them experience more valuable and of import. Furthermore, the employees can see what great part they have towards the organisations they work for and towards accomplishing success. This can be done with the aid of effectual leading maintained by the directors who invariably need to work on their leading traits. A healthy and convenient working environment demand to be created so that the employees can execute their best and maximize their end product and part in the organisations they work for. Different updated preparation installations need to be provided from clip to clip in order to heighten public presentation degree of the employees. Furthermore, the human resource directors need to make an appraisal of the employees ‘ public presentation utilizing assorted appraisal techniques both before and after their enlisting. In add-on to this, workshops and seminars must be scheduled for both the directors and the employees on assorted developing plans and a batch of significance should be given to effectual leading and maintaining clip.


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www.radissonblu.co.uk was accessed on the 1st of Dec 2010 at 12:35 Americiums

www.rezidor.com was accessed on the 1st of Dec 2010 at 12:45 Americiums


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