Source A states that “Conservatism has a ‘pessimistic’ view of human nature.” Conservatives believe that humans are both morally and psychologically imperfect beings, and that this is an unchangeable fact. Because of this we are reliant on the state for order and stability. Firm guidelines are set out with the use of laws and religion. This provides people with clear direction which is vital as humans are considered to be easily corrupted. Conservatives tend to be particularly tough on crime as people need to be deterred from giving in to their human instincts. Source A says that people are viewed as being “greedy and selfish animals”. Conservatives see crime as the result of an individuals bad character, not their circumstances, therefore crime in Conservative society is considered particularly detestable. In a BBC News article titled “Tories call for youth crime crackdown”, Ann Widdecombe was quoted calling for harsher punishments for young offenders. The shadow Home Secretary at the time stated that the “troublemakers … won’t come back laughing from the court when a tough message will be sent out to other youngsters.” This supports the idea that Conservatives support harsher punishments instead of taking other social issues at the root of crime such as poverty into consideration. They consider punishment for crime not so much as an opportunity for rehabilitation, but as a way of deterring others from doing the same. Source B explains that unlike Conservatism “Socialism has an optimistic view of human nature”. Socialists believe that humans are social beings. They see individuals as having the ability to work together as a community to achieve goals, and believe that we would rather do this than work individually for our own interests. They see competition in society as negative and as going against our social instincts as it encourages greed and aggression. Socialists believe that we have the capacity to hold ourselves responsible for each others wellbeing, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Unlike Conservatives, they believe that we are capable of doing something without the incentive of a materialistic reward. Marx believed strongly that a person is shaped by their social circumstances, and that negative behaviour such as crime is a result of society letting the individual down. Socialists do not believe that we are all born with the same talents and potentials, they do however believe that everyone should be treated equally despite this. Instead of viewing inequality as a result of some naturally rising to the top, they see it as a product of our unfair system. Socialism as a whole has a very positive view of humans, their abilities, nature and future. This contrasts with Conservative negative ideas of people as imperfect beings that need to be managed.