Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Spanish Greece, sometimes with german or religious

Spanish Conversion “It’s like a dream to come to Spain and stay for a couple of years and get somebody to teach me Spanish music.”  These words said by Lenny Kravitz; an american singer, songwriter, and reproducer, perfectly describe the way the Spanish culture blossomed out from the 1500’s to the late 1700s and to the 1800s. The Spanish culture originated from many different countries and their people. Due to sometime temporary situations, whether because of war and invasions to where their land was being ruled by someone else, or just the fact of being regionally close the another country allowed for Spain to have such a ethnic musical background. Spanish music has shifted from the 1500s to now because of its influencers.The Roman Empire brought most if its musical ideas from ancient Greece, sometimes with german or religious text. In the Middle Ages the Jewish and Arab culture inspired even more ideas. Spanish Jews were at one time established as the largest group and most successful community in the world. Because of the Jewish culture being well known in Spain their influence arose just as well. In the Jewish culture, the jewish religion plays the biggest role. The style of music is different ranging from hearing it in a synagogue, sung in their prayers, and in the secular world. Some of their music elements were founded back in biblical times. Ladino, also described as Judeo-Spanish, is the written and spoken language of the Jews with hispanic origin. Ladino has not been specifically the Jewish language until Christopher Columbus set sail and went exploring from Spain in 1492.  Ladino was solely the language of their region. There are others also known as Judezmo, Dzhudezmo, or Spaniolit. After the Jews were exiled from Spain and Portugal, they were not taught of the language, however against all odds they would still speak it in where ever they were located. Ladino relates back to the vocabulary and grammar of 14th and 15th century Spanish. The most distant from Spain the immigrants went, the more disconnected they were from learning the language, and the more Ladino began to transform from basic Castilian Spanish” (Alfassa). During the Renaissance, Flamenco originated in Andalusia, when spain was under arab sovereignty. It does not only come from the arabs or otherwise known as moors, but it comes from the gypsies, the jews, and the indigenous Andalusians. Flamenco was then known as Andalusian folk music, becoming public in the later part of the nineteenth century. The Arab music that was brought to Spain by Ziryab had giving out so much of the music or song. What showed throughout them were the songs being heard in the nearest regional countries in addition to the introduction of the specific melodies of the Arab east.  In Moorish, Spain it was evolved and shifted by Greek music cultures and songs that  had gave life to the Arab/­Andalusian type melodies. “In the later centuries, the Arabs of the Middle East held onto their own traditional music and song while in North Africa and Spain the Arab/Andalusian melodies took roots. Muqaddam ibn Qabri, born in Cabra near Cordova, was the father of this type of verse and song or zajal and muwashshaat” (Salloum).  Qabri`s music and songs were universally appreciated and sung by Christians and Muslims who were located in all parts of the Iberian Peninsula.  He, Qabri, became very well known as his type of lyric expanded throughout the Arabic world of his time. Ferdinand II dies in 1516, and during his reign and up until his wife’s death, Isabella in 1504, a new Spain had began to rise. The conquering of Granada was completed once captured. A religious seriousness had be birthed from the starting of the killing of Jews and Muslims that later will make Spain the worldly leader of the Counter- Reformation. A more different kind of wealth and territory had been discovered overseas, in the Americas, Transforming the entire sight of Europe to the Mediterranean then to the edges of the Atlantic. Many battles went on between Spain and France which birthed an alliance between Spain and England. This relationship soon ends in the late 1560’s to even worse during the 1580’s. During the reigns of Philip III and IV, bridging together the first seven decades of the 17th century, establish a rise in Spanish literature and art. After Philip III and IV, Charles II who had married two times but no children came from any of the relationships and is thought to be powerless and worthless. In his thirties is was so often sick that when he died, it was to be expected and was expected by all he ruled and all who known of him. Since Charles II had no children that could heir the throne, but he had strong powerful candidates to his great empire, what was looking to be a bad deal, called for in Europe in the 1690s. The arising issue would be fought out in a war called the War of the Spanish Succession. Charles II died in November of 1700, leaving the entire Spanish history to a member of the sequence of powerful leaders named Philip, he was the younger grandson of King Louis XIV. The results is European war that takes place throughout most in the Netherlands, and in Germany and in northern Italy. In the country of Spain itself, is where the young king arrives in 1701 as Philip V, there is a now establish people among the land knowing that the throne is in somewhat good hands. Philip earns very quickly the support in the inner parts of the kingdom. In 1793, Spain becomes apart of the first Alliance. This alliance was against France, Spain unfortunately had so little military success. “A French army invades into Spain, and in 1795 Godoy makes peace in the treaty of Basel. In 1788, the year before the revolution, Charles IV succeeds to the throne. Catholicism remained in Spain because the country had long Catholic tradition. Philip tried to suppress heresy By implementing execution to whoever “betrayed” the Catholic Church. Spain remained Catholic due to to the power of their King, He was a devoted Catholic, but tried to Counter-Reform other countries for his own territory and power.Because of the addition of Charles I unto the Spanish throne, and the additional unifying of the Habsburg territory. Habsburg was under the rule of one Emperor Charles, then later the V of Austria. Other than I of Spain, a rich nordic, which are the countries that are at the northern part of Europe. The influence was seen in the country’s Renaissance music, as most artists used from Germany to Flanders, and Flanders to Spain back again. For this reason, the characteristics of what is called polyphony was discovered in Spain during the XV century, “boosted singly by the Castilian school, also by the choir of the Cathedrals of Seville and Leon, promoted to the harsher sounds of the Flemish school”(Spanish art). Being also in this environment, Mateo Flecha, became the first composer who defines this music for first part of the XVI century. As he was working in the Cathedral of Lleida, “the Catalan Flecha was noticed and given lots of attention for his ability to create ensaladas, literally meaning a musical ‘salad’ or pastiche, that is supposed to deliver a more detailed entertainment to the established of the time”(Spanish Art). He was also a well known writer of the villancicos and there is proof of him composing at least two sacral pieces in Latin but both of them have not been discovered. Flecha, although, it was rare , “the openness in that he preferred the style developed during the final portion of the previous century over the new habits, made popular among others by Cristobal Morales”(Spanish Art). Who is known as the ‘Spanish Palestrina’ is a man by the name of Tomás Luis de Victoria. He was one of the people with the biggest influence of the Counter Reformation and the latter Renaissance music era. Deeply spiritual, Tomás Luis de Victoria’s music is said to refresh the melody of spiritual truth or the ultimate reality of who God is by intertwining different voices in the choir and also with writing the organ part and giving it an important role in his compositions. While both Cristobal Morales and Tomás Luis de Victoria had only wrote sacral pieces, Francisco Guerrero was also highly proficient in liturgical music, “(he wrote 18 masses and over 100 other sacral compositions) as well as in the popular songs of secular Renaissance music”(Spanish-art) The vihuela was an extremely liked in secular Renaissance music era in Spain.The vihuela is a Spanish guitar shaped stringed instrument, with doubling strings and was under primarily in the 15the and 16th century. As early as 1536, Luis Millán had already composed the first exposition on its use. Born in Valencia, Millán used the instrument singly for his ideas, “but however he also for other forms of secular entertainment, such as villancicos and pavans”(Spanish Art). Also during the Renaissance, “the recorded history of the guitar begins with the earliest written sources dating to the fourteenth century. The guitar emerged in Europe alongside musical traditions that came out of the Arab world, among instruments like the lute and the viol”(Spanish-Art). Johannes Tinctoris, in the fifteenth century he was a writer, and he pointed out that the Catalonia was the birthplace of the guitar, however no matter where the instrument came from, Spain had an extremely high importance on the impact of the development of it. Music for the guitar had been published in Spain and throughout this period is usually discoverable pieces for different instruments; here is some examples,”a section dedicated to the guitar is included in Juan Bermudo (1510-1565) his, El libro llamado declaración de instrumentos musicales (1555)”(Wheeldon). The first known composer f this time to decide to change things up from what was taken from tradition of the Renaissance era into the direction of baroque was Francisco Correa de Arauxo. He was born in Seville in 1584. He wrote a libro titled “de tientos” continues to be one of the expositions about the practices of music in the 16th century. It is specifically in parallel to the tonet in the Spanish organ, and had unique features and characteristics. A person who is later important who likes and respects what Arauxo orcanstraded is Pablo Nassarre. The Baroque era had never reach were the generation of that time proceeded it to get too in Spain. Of all the composers who were composing during this time into the switch to classical influences that came from the Franco-Flemish school with also coming from the indigenous ornamentation discovered in Spain`s Baroque music. Two of these composers would be, Alfonso Mudarra and Vicente Espinel. These two men composed important expositions on the beauty of the vihuela, Tres libros de música en cifra para vihuela. Vicente Espinel, however, was given the credit with the process of the four stringed guitar into a five string instrument. (Spanish-Art). During the time Espinel was a accomplished poet, professor, and musician, however, his poetry is what made him become called an expert. He invented decima, this was a unused type of verse in Spanish. There was also another person who had an influences on Spain`s music development named Nassarre who was born blind, birth the idea of a well known music school and it made him become the most significant musical theorists with the publiciaion of, “Escuela musica segun la practica moderna”, which mean the Music School of Modern Style. It produced something that had gained knowledge at this time, and it had influences that lead back to Boethius. After this schools influences were laid down other important changes that occured in the traditional Spanish music that came from the Italian influence.(Spanish Art)The next century will be the following to see the development of the seguidilla, which is a spanish dance in the triple meter, and also the spread of classical through the guiatar. One of the The following century would see the coming to of the seguidilla and the domination of a Classicism of sorts that would also spread through the canon of the guitar. One of the forefathers of the movement in Spain was Antonio Soler, he was also often known as Padre Soler due to his religious status. Soler became a priest early in life and lived at El Escorial as a hermit, with also giving lessons to King Carlos III’s son, the Infante Gabriel. However, because of Soler’s duties as a hermit, he was a professional writer, whose work stands out as a prominent source in Spanish classical music of the time. At the time when Antonio Soler was director of the choir of the Monastery of El Escorial, the official composer of the court was Domenico Scarlatti, one of the most symbolic authors of the Baroque period, whose transformations would certainly carve the spots for the invocation of classical music. (Spanish Art) Fernando Sor is in somewhere down the line in terms of its order. He is sometimes known as ‘the Beethoven of the guitar’ due to the virtuosity of his performances, Fernando Sor was an accomplished musician, not only at the guitar; which at a time when the instrument was not terribly well known in the continent, Fernando Sor’s public debut came in 1797, but the events that come out over the next ten years saw him adopt a passionate nationalist posture, which was easily to able to assume in his compositions it is said that it is, “often accompanied by patriotic lyrics against the barbarian invasion by the Napoleonic forces” (Spanish Art). This effective layer was overturned, however, once the French army conquered Spain, and Fernando Sor even accepted an administrative position within a new authority (Spanish Art). Which effectively sentenced him to exile, once the French were kicked from the territory. Fernando Sor lived and wrote abroad, primarily in Paris, for the rest of his life. Contemporary with Fernando Sor and equally instrumental in the movement of the guitar in Spanish classical music was Dionisio Aguado, whose exposition, Escuela de guitarra, proposes an purposeful technique. (Spanish Art)Aguado’s work includes two pieces influenced by the fandango, evidence of the importance gained by the traditions prevalent in the southern part of the peninsula. Flamenco, like fandango, was on the rise, and would soon be elevated to the quintessential form of expression of Spanish music, incorporating the guitar, dance and folklore of the south to evoke the spirit, as it were, of the country. Following the development of Spain’s music, because of how many influences took place upon this country, all of its regions have their own style of music or genre. For example, Andalusia`s genre is Flamenco, a folk dance that usually features guitar. Aragon is Jota, a folk dance from northern Spain made from singing. Asturias, Cantabria and Galicia are highly distinctive folk styles that have some similarities with the neighbouring area of Cantabria. The music is characterized by the use of bagpipes. Castile, Madrid and León, Jota is popular, but is uniquely slow in Castile and León, unlike its more energetic Aragonese version. In Catalonia, Iconographic evidence in the form of cliff and cave paintings as well as antique vases attests to a lively musical culture among the ancient inhabitants of Catalonia. Other relics suggest the later assimilation of Greek and Roman musical practices in the region. The cobla is a traditional music ensemble of Catalonia. It is generally used to accompany the Sardana, a traditional Catalan folk dance in a circle. Extremadura, Its folk music can be characterized by a melancholy sound, and Portuguese influences, as well as the predominance of the zambomba drum (similar to Brazilian cuica), which is played by pulling on a rope which is inside the drum. While the transitions is Spain culture in music continuously has new textures and sound that keep developing, from the Medieval times, to Renaissance, to the baroque Era, to Classical, more and more cultural shifts in the politics, environments, and arts occur. The bulk of where the Spanish music comes from is from those who surround it. Because of those countries today that Spanish music would not be anywhere near what it is. Just a simple chance for someone to take lessons or becoming passionate about and instrument, genre, or style can open the possibility for the music world to go farther.

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