development is development that improves the living conditions in the present
without compromising the resources of future generations. It is about growing together, improving.the thinking of others
and respecting the environment.
Sustainable Development Goals, also known as the “Global Goals” are build
on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which comprised of 8
anti-poverty targets that the world committed to achieving by 2015. The MDGs,
adopted in 2000, aimed at a number of issues that included eradicating poverty,
hunger, diseases, gender inequality, and access to clean water and sanitation.
Despite enormous progress achieved in the attainment of MDGs, the indignity of
poverty has not been ended for all by 2015.
25 September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted the
2030 Agenda for Sustainable,
Development, along with a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169, associated targets, which
include ending poverty, fighting inequality and injustice, and tackling, climate change by 2030
adopted the SDGs on 27th September, 2015
and was the first country to adopt them through a unanimous resolution of
the parliament. The government has taken numerous steps to be able to achieve
these goals by 2030 such as establishing, SDG support units at provincial and federal level as well
as an SDG secretariat within the parliament. ,,
has also kicked off its Vision 2025
which is aimed to enable the country for joining the Upper Middle-Income Countries by 2025 and then the Top Ten Economics of the world by 2047.
Vision 2025 consists of 5 key enablers
and 7 pillars with 25 goals and is also totally aligned
with Sustainable, Development
Goals. In addition to this, Pakistan is also a part of China’s grand, vision of Road and Belt
Initiative (RBI) through China Pakistan Economic, Corridor (CPEC). RBI is
also being considered as the first regional attempt, towards attaining the SDGs.
· SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND
Shown in the picture
above are the 17 Goals and 164 Targets (summarized) of the Sustainable
All the 17 Goals are
connected to UNDP’s Strategic Plan focus areas: sustainable, development, democratic
governance and peace building, & climate and disaster, resilience. Goal Number
1 on poverty, Number 10 on inequality and Number 16, on governance are particularly central to
UNDP’s current work and long-term,
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN PAKISTAN:-
Pakistan was one of the
early nations who committed to declare the 2030 Agenda, for Sustainable Development as a national
agenda by adopting a resolution at the, National Assembly in February 2016.
The main challenge in Pakistan
is to transform the ambitious 17, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into
provincial strategies, policies, plans and budgets to be able to implement them
challenge for Pakistan is the lack of political will, in a sense that usually
the government is not willing to work for the development for the country
rather they are more concerned with their personal interest as seen in the past
with Millennium Development Goals. But it seems that the government is
dedicated in playing their part in the implementation of Sustainable
Development Goals this time around. Political parties and leaders might agree
with the goals, but do not find them worthy of propagation.
Development Goals include ‘ending poverty’ and ‘achieving zero hunger’ by 2030.Eradicating
poverty, in all its forms, is one of the greatest challenges being faced by the
humanity. Even though the number of people living in extreme poverty has
dropped by more
than half, from 1.9 billion (1990), to 836 million (2015), too many people are, still struggling to
meet their basic needs.
In case of
Pakistan, the government’s commitment to achieving the SDGs has yet to be
translated into an action plan. The first two goals — ending poverty and
achieving zero hunger — still await approval of a national food security
Pakistan ranks 79th out of 109 countries according to the Global Food
Security Index, also, it is estimated that approximately 40 % of children under
the age of, five
are underweight, according to a World Health Organization (WHO) survey.
The effects of hunger are not limited to an individual, rather the
economy as a whole gets affected it as iodine, iron and protein deficiencies
result in an annual,
loss of 3 to 4 % of the GDP. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
estimated that 37.5mn people in Pakistan are inadequately nourished. Also, an
estimated 45 % of deaths in children under the age of five are caused by poor
3. Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all is also a
goal of sustainable development along with providing every individual with
quality education. The focus of this goal is to put an end to the epidemics of
AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030.
In Pakistan, the health of mother and child is severely distressed. According
to, UNICEF Pakistan
ranks at the bottom when it comes to infant and neonatal, mortality despite significant
improvements over the past two decades. According to statistics, 44 % of all
children are stunted and 9.6 million suffer from chronic malnutrition. Also,
Pakistan has the third highest rate of infant mortality in the, world.
Even though the situation is comparatively better in the education
sector, millions of children are deprived of education. The Annual Status of
Education Report (ASER) 2015 survey found that 20 % of the children aged 6-16
years were out of schools and the remaining 80 % are not provided with
conditions adequate for learning.
4. Another major
challenge that Pakistan is facing is the feeble budget allocation, for development. In the
fiscal year 2016-17, provincial and federal governments, have given priority to SDG related
budgets,, but they
must be spent, too, in time,
with maximum multipliers across sectors. The reason of this is not the
lack of capacity rather it is the lack of bureaucratic will. Moreover, even if
proper budget is allocated, it is not utilized properly, for example, in Sindh
52 % of government primary schools are without toilets and 40 % don’t have clean
drinking water. Furthermore, Pakistan is identified as one of the most
vulnerable countries to,
climate change which threatens food, water and energy security. Even the, devastating, natural disasters such
as earthquake and floods have failed to make the government to pay the required
attention and divert resources to respond to the, threats, and risks.
5. Gender Equality is
said to be a ‘distant dream’ as it’s impossible to achieve this goal in
Pakistan. The main reason of which is the ‘cultural impediment’ which includes
the people’s ancient mindset that the society should be male-oriented; also it
is not possible to change their rigid stance on how the ways of their society
should be. This hinders the women from ever getting equal to the men.
6. Lack of
accountability in the country is another obstacle in the development process.
Any person with power can get away with any crime as there is no one who would
hold him responsible for his actions.
The absence of effective monitoring and supervision has resulted in
rampant corruption which is causing a chaos in the country.
7. Human development
has been eclipsed because of the lack of infrastructural development. Pakistan
lacks the basic infrastructure required for the development of the people and
the country as Pakistan lacks the fundamental elements required for development
such as: sufficient energy, sustained economic growth, just and strong
institutions, clean drinking water and above all income equality.
8. One of the many
problems in Pakistan includes the massive rates of unemployment. As per
pertinent research studies, Pakistan needs to create 2 million jobs yearly to
ingest out-of-work youth throughout the following three decades. The nation desperately requires resuscitating and
growing the manufacturing base to address this unemployment problem.
Keeping the aforementioned
and the various unmentioned challenged faced by Pakistan, it is observed that executing
the SDGs is said to be a colossal test, particularly for Pakistan as it is already
facing a certain degree of political disengagement and is clearly inconclusive about the path
it wishes to take for going ahead.
STEPS TAKEN BY PAKISTAN FOR ACHIEVING THE SDGs SO
In the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) lies the solution to Pakistan’s three, focal challenges: development,
democracy and protection. Execution of the, UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, if perceived
as an incorporated,
strategy, will lead to long-term economic prosperity & human and, environmental
development in Pakistan.
The preparedness of
Pakistan to deliver on 2030 targets is among, some of the top in the world, raising expectations
that it would not repeat its terrible execution of, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
when it missed, almost
all the targets.
As opposed to popular
belief, achieving the SDGs is not an inconceivable accomplishment. A, human-centered
across all sustainable, development
goals will not only help end poverty, but simultaneously bring, improvements, in the quality of life, the environment, and governance for the, nation.
The Government of
Pakistan has taken various measures to facilitate the process of achieving the
Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
A major initiative by the Government of Pakistan is the VISION 2025 which has all the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) incorporated in it. The Government and the
people of Pakistan have high hopes and expectations that Pakistan would be able
to implement this vision effectively by 2025 and hence will achieve the SDGs by
The Vision aims to serve as an aspirational document envisioning the goal of, adjusted human, social, and economic progress
all through Pakistan. It accentuates increase of development, fortifying of the
nation’s development foundation and empowering it to achieve the status of an
upper middle income nation.
The Vision divides its challenges and goals into a set of seven pillars identified
as, the key drivers
of growth, which will transform Pakistan into a vibrant, and, prosperous nation by 2025. These seven pillars are based
on the goals of,
embracing change and transformation, and to create new opportunities based on, our inborn qualities.
PILLARS OF VISION 2025:
Following are the seven (7) pillars of Vision 2025:
Ø Pillar-I: Developing human and social capital:-
The first priority of Vision 2025 is to provide every citizen the
ability to improve, his/her
choices and quality of life. This requires:
Capitalizing upon and reinforcing existing social
Improving the basic human skill of the population;
Providing access to opportunities for progression;
A quick scaling-up of interests in investments in
education, wellbeing and social advancement;
Generating employment and prospects for the youth
Harnessing the rising power of a socially aware population,
gender equality and women’s development;
Inclusion of vulnerable segments, interfaith harmony
and religious diversity;
Promotion of art, culture and legacy;
Raising sporting standards, and moving towards an information-based,
moral and qualities driven society.
The key goals under this pillar are to:
universal primary education with 100 per cent net primary enrolment;
Increase Higher Education coverage from 7% to 12 %,
and increase no. of PhD’s from 7,000 to 15,000;
Reduce the incidence/prevalence of Hepatitis, Diarrhoea,
Diabetes and Heart Disease by 50%;
· Reduce infant
mortality rate from 74 to less than 40 (per 1000 births) and reduce maternal
mortality rate from 276 to less than 140 (per 1000 births); and
proportion of population from 48 % to 90 % with an access to improved
Ø Pillar-II: Achieving sustained, indigenous, and
Pakistan Vision 2025 seeks to revive and sustain the growth momentum
consistent with environmental limits and equity considerations. The objective
is to provide better living standards to every Pakistani irrespective of caste,
creed, or domicile, or religious or political affiliation. The Vision envisages
a strategy for developing a united and equitable society through a balanced
development approach, social uplift and rapid broad based growth. This includes:
Resource mobilization through improved tax collection;
Mobilizing the diaspora and attracting private sector
Radical improvements in productivity;
Provision of opportunities to all segments of society;
Formalizing the parallel economy, urban development
and smart cities and social protection frameworks.
The key objectives are to:
· Become one of
the largest 25 economies in the world, leading to Upper Middle Income country status;
Reduce poverty level by half;
Increase tax to GDP ratio from 9.8% to 18%;
· Increase FDI from USD 600
million to over USD 15 billion.
Ø Pillar-III: Democratic governance, institutional
reform and modernisation of the public sector:-
The third pillar aims to ensure good governance; strengthen institutions
such as parliament, judiciary, police, and the civil service; and deliver the
benefits of devolution of powers to provincial governments as prescribed in the
18th amendment. The Vision seeks an efficient and transparent
government, which operates under the rule of law and provides security of life
and property to its people. The Vision strives to develop a skilled, motivated
and result-focused civil service, an effective regulatory framework, and an
infrastructure that supports technology and best global practices.
The key goal is to:
· Place in the top 50th
percentile for Political Stability (from bottom 1 percentile), No
Violence/Terrorism (from bottom 1 percentile), and Control of Corruption (from
bottom 13th percentile) as measured by the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance
Ø Pillar-IV: Energy, water and food security:-
Sufficient, reliable, clean and cost-effective availability of energy,
water and food is indispensable for ensuring sustainable economic growth and
development. These key sectors have suffered historically from severe failings
of policy and execution and there is a need to fill the enormous gaps in these
areas, while simultaneously making efforts to respond to the looming threat of
climate change A renewed national consensus exists to commit new major
investment through unprecedented public and private sector collaboration to
bridge very large gaps threatening the well-being and progress of Pakistan. Two
major water and energy related projects — Diamer-Bhasha Dam (4500 MW) and Dasu
Hydro Power Project (2160 MW) — have already been included in the Public Sector
The key goals under this pillar are:
· Energy: double power generation to 42,000 MW to provide
uninterrupted and affordable electricity, and increase electricity access from
67% to over 90% of the population by 2025;
· Water: increase storage capacity to 90 days, improve efficiency of
usage in agriculture by 20%, and ensure access to clean drinking water for all
· Food: Reduce the food-insecure
population from 60% to 30%.
Ø Pillar-V: Private sector and entrepreneurship-led
Vision 2025 aims to make Pakistan a highly attractive destination for
private sector investment, with conditions that allow private investors to
successfully participate in its development. The Vision seeks to achieve
sustained engagement of the private sector, where the resources and skills,
available across all sectors, are fully deployed to achieve defined targets. This
A concerted focus on the areas that inhibit the
private sector, including the energy deficit, lack of security, labour skills,
slow and costly judicial procedures (contract enforcement);
Macroeconomic instability; and
Ad hoc regulations.
The key goals are to:
· Rank in the top
50 countries on the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Rankings
Diaspora investment (via remittances) in the private sector from US 14 billion
to US 40 billion.
· Create at least
5 global Pakistani brands (having more than 50% sales coming from consumers
outside Pakistan), and make ‘Made in Pakistan’ a symbol of quality
Ø Pillar-VI: Developing a competitive knowledge economy
National competitiveness refers to the ability to produce and deliver
products and services effectively and profitably relative to competing
countries. Improving national competitiveness is critical to ensure we utilize
our resources in a productive manner. The Vision envisages fundamental
improvements in competitiveness across the industrial, manufacturing, services
and agricultural sectors. The foundations of a knowledge economy will be laid
and Industry-Academia linkage strengthened. Cluster based development approach
will be used and value chain improvements incentivised. Innovation, technology
adoption and value addition will be encouraged. Natural endowments will be
tapped, and productivity enhanced across all factors.
The key goals of this pillar are to:
· Join the ranks of the top
75 countries as measured by the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness
· Triple labour
and capital productivity;
Improve Pakistan’s score on the World Bank Institute’s
Knowledge Economy Index from 2.2 to four;
Increase the number of tourist arrivals to 2 million.
Ø Pillar-VII Modernising transportation infrastructure
and greater regional connectivity:-
The Vision aims at establishing an efficient and integrated
transportation system, which facilitates the development of a competitive
economy. Major related targets are reduction in transportation costs, safety in
mobility, effective connectivity between rural areas and markets and urban
centres, interprovincial high-speed connectivity, integrated road and rail
networks between economic hubs (including air, sea and dry ports), and
high-capacity transportation corridors connecting major regional partners.
The key goals under this pillar are to:
Increase road density from 32 km/100 km2 to 64 km/ 100
km2, and share of rail in transport from 4% to 20% ;
Increase annual exports from US$ 25 billion to US$ 150
Share of the Pakistan Railways from 4% to 20 %.
§ In order to
realize Vision 2025 effectively, well defined coordination mechanism among
federating units including four provinces, and special areas such as FATA,
Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJ&K) is needed. The
federation will be strengthened by promoting inter-provincial and
federal-provincial communication and coordination so that national and
provincial priorities are aligned, and the federal and provincial governments
work together to reach common goals.
§ Key aspects that
will enable the successful execution of this strategic undertaking include;
sustained executive commitment & support, improved resource mobilization
and macroeconomic capacity, private sector engagement, and radical improvement
in productivity, engagement of Government-Private Sector, Academia and
Citizens, creating and network of Vision champions, bridging the Knowing-Doing
gap, performance management and evaluation framework, and employing change
PAKISTAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION FUND
It is established by
the Government of Pakistan as an autonomous non-profit company and has
incorporated Goal 1 (No Poverty) in its agenda. So far, it is working across
130 districts in the country with 130 partner organizations.
PPAF is a leading
institution focused on eliminating poverty in Pakistan. It facilitates
public-private partnerships that have a, mutual goal to achieve the social, and
economic change in Pakistan by addressing the multi-dimensional issues of,
PPAF aims to promote an
effective approach towards poverty alleviation through, various programs and
strategies, devised to have an impact from community level onwards.