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Term to provide insight knowledge about the










Term Project Report


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December 10, 2017

























—-Table of Contents—- 










What is XML  


Evolution of Online Travel Industry 


How XML is used in travel industry  


Application Program Interface


Importance of XML in travel industry  





























The major
goal of this research paper is to provide insight knowledge about the use of
XML in a travel industry. In a simple word, XML refers to a method of writing
messages and sending data to a remote computer. It allows the computers to talk
with each other. Nowadays, XML has been extremely used in almost every
industry. In travel industry, the use of XML has helped to build a flexible and
modern site by eliminating the expensive and difficult design plans. XML
integration is basically a translator between a supplier and the customers which
provides several programming languages or formats.  The information can
appear from the airline, hotel rental, railway company, a bus company, car
rental, etc. on the websites of the travel industries.  XML integration
helps in increasing the distribution channels, centralized inventory
management, and personal savings.   















The travel industry is a very dynamic industry which is
growing all the time. According to the U.S. Travel Association
(USTA), it estimated total U.S. travel expenditures at $704.4 billion for 2009,
$772.9 billion for 2008, $739.4 billion in 2007 and $699.8 in 2006 which
clearly shows the trend of American consumers in
travel expenses (Plunkett, 2010). The USTA data also shows that hotel
occupancy and airline traffic are strong in emerging nations including India,
China, and the surrounding Asian region, as well as in Brazil, which has been
enjoying soaring economic growth (Plunkett, 2010). 

The price and availability are never fixed in this
industry which also adds a dynamic feature to the industry. Nowadays, travel
industry mostly operates its business online. Booking flights, cars, hotels,
etc. are all performed online. Travel agencies create the online website where
all the product information is presented and the booking options are made
available. Online travel and E-commerce has changed the travel
industry in many ways, making the travel process convenient and worry-free
for travelers as well as travel businesses. All major online travel business
has their own reservation systems which are filled with
numerous great features and products;
they include photos, description as
well as reward programs. All these
major changes in online made it possible by
XML. Online website makes travel information, and booking options
available through HTML. Then, it uses XHTML, an open-ended extensible markup
language to transfer those requests and returns a reply which is easily
understandable by the customers.     





What is


The Extensible markup language, abbreviated as XML, is a
subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language known as SGML. SGML helps to
specify a document markup language. HTML and XML both are derived from SGML.
The basic difference between HTML and XML is that, HTML is an application of
SGML and XML is a subset of SGML. SGML has been used by the organizations
dealing with huge amount of data for the purpose of cataloging and indexing.
There were several obstacles to deliver SGML over the web. Therefore, XML was
introduced to overcome these issues.

SVOBODA, & SAKR (2017), extensive Markup Language (XML) is considered as a
standard method for the exchange of information or data. It is used to stock,
transmit, and interchange data and is different from HTML (Hypertext Markup
Language). HTML’s basic purpose is to display the data, and is pre-defined. On
the other hand, XML consists of certain rules and regulations that are used in
encoding documents and is both human and machine-readable. XML is considered as
an advanced language form with more elasticity. XML-enabled databases systems
(DBS) are found to be used in many areas like Drupal, Word Press etc. for
storing, inquiring, and publishing methods. XML has gained its popularity for
being able to easily encode the information. XML helps to write down various
messages and send that information to distant computers and can communicate
with each other. XML has been immensely successful in documenting markup, data
and meta-data sharing, allowing inter-operability, and transporting and storing
data more clearly. One can create their own tags, or can use other’s tag since
it is extendable and can use the language from your domain.



of Online Travel Industry


The travel industry was in a different place a few years
ago.  Today, the travel industry has been revolutionized by the web. It
has allowed travelers to explore, buy and share trips with just a click of a
mouse. There are numerous travel options available and the customer’s demand
for their travel providers has increased tremendously Loureiro,
A. (2016).  In March 1989, a proposal was
written for a World Wide Web by a British computer scientist, Tim Berners-Lee
(May, 2014). Travelwed.com, the first comprehensive catalog of hotels around
the world was developed by John Davis in 1994 (May,1989). In 1995, Internet
Travel Network (ITN) developed the first web-based airline booking system.
Later a travel technology business was introduced by Viator Systems which
provided easy booking facility through the web. Microsoft launched its online
travel agency in 1996, which is widely known as Expedia.  Now, it has
numerous sister brands in the travel industry.  In 1998 Lastminute.com was
launched by Brent Hoberman and Martha Lane Fox providing customers a comfort
booking their trips at the last moment.  Later Travelocity was developed
with the same concept. In 2000, Trip Advisor was introduced claiming the
biggest online travel site which provided an option to select hotels along with
the flights. Until today, the travel industry has been evolving its online
service enormously, making it convenient for the customers to book their trips
all over the world with much ease.  


How XML is used in travel industry

In the travel industry, the use of XML helps to build a
flexible and modern site by eliminating the expensive and difficult design
plans. XML integration is basically a translator between a supplier and the
customers that provide several programming languages or formats.  


Today, most
of the travelers use internet to look up flights, hotels, reserve cars etc.
which has led to increase in the implementation of XML. XML technology helps to
provide necessary tools to provide a detailed travel itinerary. The information
is stored in a XML format which cannot be seen in a browser, therefore is
stored as a markup and can be extended. When customers look for the hotels in
the internet, they search some hotels and compare them with the other ones.
After finding the suitable hotel, they will be directed to the site of the
hotel to make the purchase. The intermediary sites such as Trivago, Kayak, Expedia
etc. acts as a bridge between the consumer and supplier. Hotels, flights, and
car rentals have been integrated since the use of the XML Vinod, B.
(2016). While performing the search in the internet,
XML generates a message that is understandable to the users who are looking for
the hotel. When the users select specific hotel, the message is send back to
the users by the supplier using XML.   

There are two standard groups that came forward for the
travel industry. They are Open Travel Alliance and Open Axis. The standard
was initially developed for hospitality industry and later used by the airline
industry. In the past, travel industry was dominated by traditional travel
agencies working with Global Distribution Systems. Nowadays, travel industry consists
online travel agencies. The travel agencies try to find customers directly
through the booking engines like last minute and mobile specialist. In the same
way the customers also go through the several websites looking for the perfect
value. XML acts like an essential link of a seamless connectivity which helps
to sync different system within the travel industry (Rice, K. 2013). The XML based APIs
(Application Program Interface) aids in reinforcing the travel
industry by helping it to connect to multiple systems.   





Application Program Interface


Application Program Interface (APIs) plays a vital role in the tech
industry. It helps to connect data streams and functionalities among various
software products. It helps the developers to link different components of the
software without using a source code. By this the travel industry can provide
different travel options to their customers from their website. For example, a
hotel industry can provide car rental service through their website directly
which makes the booking more convenient for the customers. It can be done by
integrating the room reservation engine with the car rental providers around
that area. It even benefits the hotel providers to earn some commission from
the can renters. Ticket booking, car rental, hotel room reservation,
sightseeing and other events are some of the most important APIs used in travel
industry to merge different travel components in a single application.  


of XML in travel industry


 XML integration helps in increasing the distribution
channels, centralize inventory management, and personal savings. Technology has
made it possible for the exchange of information by connecting various systems
that are independent. Use of XML by the third party is preferred because it is
less time consuming, user friendly, and customers can compare prices along with
other options of what they want. Another advantage is that, it is a one-stop
shopping for the customers with option to check deals, offers, and discounts.
XML helps to connect many businesses worldwide and reach more customers as
well. XML is easily understandable and readable even by the beginners. 
XML is totally compatible with Java which is also a great benefit for the


The internet has changed the way of people’s life. Travel
has become such a dynamic industry with the use of XML. A well-managed XML
approach can create an enormous difference for all members of the business.
With its help user will business to reach out a maximum number of customers and
take optimal benefits while providing A-one services to the customer. XML in
travel industry cannot be underestimated as it has changed the
way of business in every sector of the travel industry. We live in the world of
technology, where everything is highly influenced by tech and science. With
the wide use of XML in travel industry, it has helped to construct an advanced
and dynamic interface through web (Meehan, M. 2000).  

Use of XML
has increased in all the aspects of travel, making it one of the most reliable
means to share data. With the extensive use of XML in the travel industry,
there is a lot of opportunity and broad area to advance (Tavisca 2014). With
the revolutionary changes in travel industry and technology, the future of XML
looks so exciting.   



The travel industry and technology companies integrated XML
APIs with many suppliers and the customers. It is very difficult for a travel
technology to provide an interaction between the travel providers and the
booking engines. It is challenging to keep track of the interaction of the
travel providers and the suppliers without any error and taking in care of the
changes taking place constantly in the travel industry. XML has contributed a
lot to this industry to overcome these issues. It has given a modern
transformation to a traditional travel industry by providing customers a
capability buying the services online. It also helps the travel companies to
advertise their brands, increase their sales tremendously, and achieve
customer’s faith.  






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10.  Plunkett, J. W. (2010). Plunkett’s Airline,
Hotel & Travel Industry Almanac 2011. Houston, Tex: Plunkett Research,

11.  Rice, K. (2013). Valyn Perini: Open Travel
Alliance. Travel Weekly, (10). 4.

12.  Standard Lets Travel Companies Branch Out;
XML spec promises improved connectivity and lower distribution costs.
(2005). InformationWeek, 

13.  Travel and Booking APIs for Online Travel and
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