Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

The northern Rus’ due to the fact

The
aspiration to create a running state usually is being pushed by internal and
external factors. In terms of internal factors which contributed towards the
formation of Rus’ as a state include- common language, developed agriculture, high
use of resources, and developed trade relations within the society. From the
external factors point it consists of the ability to protect the state’s
territory and its population from rival groups, and to have the capability to
defend economic and political interests in relation with other states. When
both factors were taken in account Rus’ got established where Rurikid brothers
were asked to rule over the land by the people. In this essay the main goal
will be to overview the key events in Russian history from the Kievan Rus’ to
the last monarch ruler Nicholas II that was assassinated by the Soviet counterparts.

As
we know Russian history starts with the establishment of Rus’, where Rurikid
was asked by people to rule over Novgorod. After the death of Rurik, power in Novgorod
was taken by Oleg who in 882 gathered a large army, conquered Kiev and created
the great state of Kievan Rus’. Going forward 90-100 years from Oleg’s rule,
towards the time when there were disputes between the brothers for the rule of
the state, where Vladimir Svyatoslavovich came out victorious over Iaropolk.
Vladimir’s reign over Kievan Rus’ is among the most significant in Russian
history. While Kiev and Novgorod lands were reunited under one ruler, certain secessionist
tribes refused to obey the new ruler. Vladimir faced challenges of: “unifying a
diverse realm, dealing with the Pecheneg threat to trade, and establishing a
working political system” (Weiner,ppt). In order to take care of the problems,
in 988 Vladimir decided to impose Orthodox Christianity as state religion in
Kievan Rus’. At the time this procedure meant total social makeup. The process
of conversion to Christianity was long and difficult especially in northern Rus’
due to the fact that there was a great amount of pagans, who didn’t want to
convert and openly expressed their disagreement. However, over time the resistance
was suppressed where if rejected individuals were viciously executed. Thus, the
religion in Rus’ attained an important role where it would be hard to imagine
Russia without Christianity. Also in terms of foreign policy, state conversion gave
Rus’ new ally in face of Byzantine Empire, which was a great trading partner.

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The
next important event that altered the Russian history was Mongolian invasion.
This conquest brought disasters to Rus’, including high number of casualties
and few centuries of heavy taxation on everyone. The destruction of the
cultural and material values occurred, which served as a delay in the
development of the Rus’ economy. The rulers of Rus’ principalities had to
collect money from their people and pay to the Mongolians. Correspondingly
trades between different states fell which made it difficult for people to get
goods. In the end, while most Western countries were progressing, Rus’ stalled
in terms of development and had to catch up with everyone else later on.

After
the defeat of the Mongols, the unification of the Russian land took place where
the spiritual foundation of the nation assisted the process of forming centralized
Russian state. In my opinion, after the years of being under Mongolian rule,
Russian rulers learned a lot about state government. During the rule of Ivan
III, the beginning of the authoritarian rule takes place while pre-Mongolian
Rus’ had some sort of democracy, for example veche. Now being the ruler meant having
the power over everyone, and it was in fact Russian Tsars had more power than
any other European monarch. The entire population from the highest ranked
boyars to the poor individual, all were considered to be Tsar’s serfs. This is
significant to history because based on that during the Imperial Russia, laws
would be made regarding the power of the Emperors and Empresses.

During
the time when Peter the Great was in power, huge bulk of reforms followed
including the implications of Westernization. Peter’s main goal was to
establish a major power that would be feared and respected in Europe. Under
some of his reforms laws were certain rules which required nobility to shave
their facial hair, however for lower class peasants and priests that wasn’t allowed.
Therefore Peter the Great created the division between the rich and poor. Under
his regulations the ruling class went under new changes, where new titles were
introduced like earl (graf) and baron. In talks regarding the foreign policy
Peter I succeeded in creating powerful navy and army which managed to defeat
experienced Swedes, which was a huge achievement because for the longest time
Russians couldn’t do it. Peter radically changed the internal structure of the
country by introducing a number of economic, political, military and church
reforms. The emperor didn’t spare anyone including his own son all in order to
achieve the ultimate goal to make Russia a better place, something that the next
historical person that I will talk about couldn’t do.

Certain
events in Russian history had tragic consequences, what happened to Nicholas II
was one of the most talked about. During the beginning of his reign, Nicholas
ascended to the throne where Russia was in good economic condition, with good
agriculture and new developing industries. However due to circumstances which
saw the economy decline where bankruptcies and mass unemployment occurred, saw
the things changed. Revolutionary minds responded to that right away linking
the working class and peasants against the Tsar. Huge amount of people started
to protest against Nicholas II, so in response he wanted to do something to get
their minds off. By his consul’s suggestions Russia went to war against the
Japan where they took a major loss which lowered the morale of the people and
boosted even bigger outrage against the Tsar. In the end Nicholas couldn’t cope
with the problems such as two wars, revolutions, declined economy. Therefore people
followed communists who assassinated the Tsar’s whole family.

In
my opinion throughout the Russian history the country was marked by breaks more
often rather than being marked by continuities. The reason for my opinion is
that there were always something happening where different circumstances prevented
Russia to move forward. Whether that was due to split up principalities where
the rulers were always going at each other in order to increase the lands and
financial prosperity, or that be long-lasting rule of Mongols over Rus’ which
destabilized economic progression as well as cultural. Unity had to be achieved
by overpowering of one group over another and even after it was hard to ensure
the loyalty of every faction in the country. Also to take in account situations
where political madness or miscalculations, like seen in Ivan the Terrible and
the Times of Trouble, that put the society in challenging positions. Of course
there were periods of times where rulers and people both had their requirements
satisfied and the country was going towards being well respected among other
nations, for example during the reign of Peter the Great, but for the most time
it has been the opposite. 

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