increase in human population and the intense activities to meet its economic
needs and growing aspirations have placed an immense pressure on the natural
resources, and have led to misuse or abuse of available resources. Human
activities have dramatically increased the intensity, pace and kinds of environmental
change, posing severe adaptive challenges to marine organisms. Anthropogenic
destruction of resources, fragmentation and change of habitats, release of
pollutants, introduction of species and climate change, are now more rapid,
intensive and widespread than natural changes (UNESCO, n.d.).
Coastal ecosystem is widely exposed to anthropogenic
pollution since it receives inputs from terrestrial, littoral, marine and
atmospheric sources. Urban development around coastal areas and consequent increase
in the levels of anthropogenic contaminants from the catchment area cause
serious water quality deterioration problems worldwide, particularly in Asian
regions having larger populations and higher precipitation
compared with other regions of the world (Jose et al., 2015). The coastal zone of barangay Lamao is
subjected to increasing pressure due to urbanization, industrialization, and
waste disposal from the locals. The mix of water- based and land based economic
activities put a great stress on the coastal zone.
2.3 Water Quality
According to the
Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 or RA 9275, water quality refers to the characteristics of water which
define its use in terms of physical, chemical, biological, bacteriological or
radiological characteristics by which the acceptability of water is evaluated.
These indicate the conditions of the water whether it is good quality or not. Water
quality links to the surrounding environment and land
use. Other than in its vapor form, water is never pure and is affected by
community uses such as agriculture, urban and industrial use, and recreation.
In order to characterize any water body, studies on the major
components, hydrology, physico-chemical and biological characteristics, should
be carried out. Barangay Lamao coastal water is a type SD or also known as
navigable water, the DENR allowable limit is presented in table 2.3.
2.4 Physico- chemical and
is one of the most important compounds to the ecosystem. Physico-chemical and
micro-biological characteristics may describe the quality of water (Priyanka et
al., 2009). Better quality of water can be described by its physical, chemical
and biological characteristics. But, some correlation is possible among these
parameters and the significant one would be useful to indicate the quality of