THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF IIUM UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NATIONAL EXAMINATION SPM
SOLEHAH BINTI MUHAMAD REZALI
SEMESTER 1 2017/2018
A PROJECT PAPER SUBMITTED AS A COURSE REQUIREMENT FOR RESEARCH METHODS IN COUNSELLING SUBJECT (EDG 3401)
KULLIYYAH OF EDUCATION
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
Table of Content
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
Statement of Problem 4
Purpose of Study 4
Significance of Study 4
Research Questions 5
Research Objectives 5
Conceptual Framework 5
Definition of Terms 6
Summary of Chapter 7
CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review 8
Summary of Chapter 10
CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODS Introduction 11
Research Design 11
Data Collection Procedure 12
Data Analysis Procedure 13
Research Instrumentation 13
Summary of Chapter 15
CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of the Research
Highlights of Findings
Recommendation for Future Research
Widespread study and research in the educational sociology expose a significant relationship between family socio-economic status (SES) and the academic achievement of students. A single SES variable is operationalized through dealings characterizing from three perspective; parental education, occupation and income. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combined measure of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation, when analyzing a family’s SES, the mother’s and father’s education and occupation are examined. Family socio-economic background includes family income, standard of house occupied or rented, family size, parental education and level of family stability.
According to ………………socio-economic background is a most critical variable in the determination of achievement, stressing that the opportunity to achieve success is influenced by learning, availability of special help at home, reference materials and tutors.
In the context of this research, the academic achievement is focusing on the result of past national examination of SPM; which is really well-known by the netizens that it plays a big role in contributing to the success of education continuity in the tertiary level. The SPM result of the first year students of IIUM undergraduate students are analyze to determine it relationship with their family socioeconomic status.
The issue of socioeconomic background and its relationship to students’ achievement can also be explored specifically on the level of parental education, income and occupation. Literature on academic achievement seems to show that parent level of education is important in predicting children’s academic achievement. Most economically advantaged students may have higher access opportunity towards education facilities and assistants.
Thus, this current study attempts to identify the effect of socioeconomic status on academic achievement of first year IIUM undergraduates in their past national exam, SPM.
Statement of Problem
Despite of the students’ capability to enroll in a public university; IIUM, different students may have experienced different difficulties during their schooling years in order to achieve good result in SPM. The concern is that their SPM academic achievement is somehow affected by several factors, and one of it is socioeconomic status. Some of them may have full access towards education facilities and assistant and some of them may face extreme difficulties on achieving success in SPM with the limited access towards education facilities and addition of financial constraint of the family. Therefore, this research is to find out what are the factors that affect academic achievement among IIUM undergraduate students in their past national examination SPM.
Purpose of Study
This study aims to identify the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performances of IIUM undergraduate students.
Significance of Study
…………… found that student’s family economic status played important roles in their lives both inside and outside of school, and the researchers concluded that a family’s economic status had the most significant influence on student learning. …………………… shared that the general perception was that students who belonged to families with higher socioeconomic status would have greater opportunities to interact with the learning environment which resulted in greater achievement as opposed to students who were from lower socioeconomic status who had less opportunities and less resources that caused them to lag behind academically. Vygotsky’s constructivist theory suggested that students’ learning was affected by their social interactions. It was therefore necessary to understand the underpinnings and the impact of socio-economic status and other factors that are related to the academic achievement gaps. The relationships need to be examined so that educational practitioners and the government line respond to the underlying issues that are impacting the students.
In brief, it is important to analyze the strength of the impact of socioeconomic status towards the SPM academic achievement of students, so that the socioeconomic status gap can be shorten and domino effect can be reduce in the generation chain. Thus, this group can be empower and attract the attention of the right group to help them.
1. Is there any relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM?
2. What is the relationship between parents’ occupation and academic achievement?
3. What is the relationship between parents’ income and academic achievement?
1. To identify the relationship between parents’ education and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM
2. To examine the relationship between parents’ occupation and academic achievement
3. To explore the relationship between parents’ income and academic achievement
Figure 1.1 shows the framework line for this study. The researcher chose to focus on three types of concept which is level of confidence, personality of a person and academic performances of IIUM undergraduate students. The first concept which is the level of confidence had been choose because the researcher wants to know is it influence someone’s academic performances. The other concept chosen by the researcher which is personality; the researcher is curious to know is there any type of personality that affect student’s academic performance. Lastly, the researcher interested to understand the concept of academic performance which is what makes this student’s achievement different from each other. Thus, by having these three concepts, we will be able to find the answer whether personality really influence academic performance of IIUM undergraduate students.
Definition of Terms
The way in which two or more concepts, objects, or people are connected, or the state of being connected.
A student at a college or university who has not yet earned a bachelor’s or equivalent degree.
Of or relating to education and scholarship
Academic achievement is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
SES is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Summary of Chapter
The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) required states to set educational standards and mandated states to report annually on the progress of all students towards those standards. Educational standards should be established so that through the development and maintenance of appropriate teaching and learning conditions, all students would have a fair opportunity to learn. This will help many people to understand and acknowledge well about students if they are having academic problems.
In sum, it is suggested that attention be paid to with-in group differences so that policy makers and practitioners avoid ineffective and counterproductive programs for minority students, and provide extra education facilities and assistance to the group who cannot afford to get them on their own. In addition, the study about the relationship of socioeconomic and the academic achievement will be widespread conducted in more details.
Summary of Chapter
This chapter discussed synthesis of available research on personality and academic achievement done by the previous researches especially in defining various terms that describes the definition and the qualities of personalty, the definition of academic performance of college students, valid and reliable measurements in measuring personality and academic performances of first year undergraduate students. The results and discussions of past researches presented in this chapter in order to provide a view on how this study is linked and connected to the prior research. In this chapter also, it shows consistency findings of past research and also disagreements of past research that can be link to this study. The purpose of having the link with prior research also will allow this study to learn from what has been found by the prior researchers and will help in formulating new ideas to this study in a way that this study may remedy flaws that exist in the past studies.
This chapter consists of seven sections including research design, study population, sampling strategy, instruments, procedure, data management and analysis.
The research design for this study is a quantitative study.
The population for this study are 80 International Islamic University of Malaysia undergraduate first year students who takes SPM in their secondary level education. There will be no specific gender selected for this data collection.
This research targets a number of respondents consists of 80 first year undergraduate students. By using simple-random sampling, 10 students will be selected from each Kulliyyah in IIUM which it covers all 8 faculties: Kulliyyah of ICT, Kulliyyah of Architecture, Kulliyyah of Engineering, Kulliyah of Language and Management, Kulliyyah of Education, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed and Human Sciences, Kulliyyah of Economics and Science Management, and Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Law. To have a fair respondent, the sample will be selected with the same number of students to represent every faculty in IIUM. By using simple-random sampling technique, each element in the population is given an equal and independent chance of selection.
Data Collection Procedure
A simple random sampling technique will be used to collect the data from 80 respondents total, from eight Kulliyyah of IIUM which is 10 per kulliyyah. The sample will be picked randomly by choosing students in the first year of undergraduate in every Kulliyyah. The sample that will be selected randomly according to the targeted year of study will be participating in the study. Participants were provided a questionnaire with four main construct which measuring parents’ education, parents’ occupation, parents’ income and student academic achievement in SPM (A’s count- which are taken directly from the SPM result based on the numbers of A achieved). The researcher utilized Cronbach alpha to investigate the internal consistency of the questionnaires collected from the respondents.
Data Analysis Procedure
The data is going to be collected from the questionnaires which contain numerical scale questions. The collected data will be entered in SPSS for descriptive analysis and to check statistically significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The final result will be calculated into percentage and will be compared the distinctive between the two variables, which is the percentage of socioeconomic measure by the sample and the percentage of ‘A’ result of their past national examination SPM result of the sample in order to ascertain the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance of sample in past SPM. The study utilized regression, correlation analysis to answer the research objectives and to test the research hypothesis. All data will be presented in percentage and will be sorted in tables accordingly.
Participants were provided a questionnaire with four main construct which measuring parents’ education, parents’ occupation, parents’ income and student academic achievement in SPM (A’s count).
Summary of Chapter
In this chapter, the focus is on methodology to conduct this study. The quantitative research design is chosen in order to provide a framework that this study is going to be conducted in way that provides correlation between the two variables. Besides, in this chapter, it provides a clear method to be carried out. The sampling technique chosen in this study also influences the result of this study and the random sampling technique is chosen because it is most likely to yield a sample that truly represents the population of IIUM. By using this sampling techniques, it helps to statistically calculate relationship between the sample and the population that we want to generalized.
After reviewing the past research done, most of the researchers found that socioeconomic status had great influence on academic achievement. Socioeconomic Status indicated significant relationship with student achievement. With the light of the result socioeconomic status factor is the one that most impact positively on academic achievement. While others found no relationship between socioeconomic statuses on student achievement. However it is further research is needed to be conducted about the effect of socioeconomic status on academic achievement. Researchers generated the following hypothesis:
H1: there is significant relationship between parents’ education and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM
H2: there is significant relationship between parents’ occupation and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM
H3: there is significant relationship between parents’ income and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM
Demographic Data Analysis
All variables of the study gained high inside reliability as shown in below table 1 this allows to make further analysis and discussion.
Table 1: Reliability test
Variables Items Cronbach Alpha
Parents’ Education 3 0.716
Parents’ Income 3 0.720
Academic Achievement 9
According to the gender respondents 85% were female while 15% was male. All of the respondents are first year undergraduate IIUM students.
Table 2: profile of the respondents
Variable Frequency Percentage
Male 12 15.0
Total 80 100.0
20 40 50.0
21 7 8.8
22 2 2.5
Total 80 100.0
Quantitative Data Analysis
Correlation between the variables
The first objective of this study was to determine the relationship between Parents’ education and academic achievement of IIUM first year undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM
Table3: Correlation Analyzes
Variables 1 2 3 4
Parents’ Education 1
Parents’ Occupation .523 1
Parents’ Income .465 .566 1
Academic Achievement .693 .682 .690 1
Table 3 shows the result of correlation analyzes of the relationships among parents’ education, parents’ occupation, parents’ income and academic achievement. Parents’ education has positive relationship with academic achievement(r=.693 and p