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The Testing Of Composite Materials Biology Essay

In this undertaking a survey was conducted on two types of the composite stuffs carbon fibre 5ply laminate and C fiber sandwich construction.

The methodological analysis of the undertaking was categorised into industry of composite and their testing. In order to continue the industry phase, the research was conducted and gained cognition enabled to bring forth C fiber 5ply laminate and C fiber honeycomb construction.

These processs were ; the three-point-bend trial, tensile trial, bead impact trial and charpy trial. The all trials were performed on standard university equipment. After proving phase was completed the wide information was analyzing and discussed.

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Aim of the undertaking

The purpose of the undertaking is present the manner in which complexs are manufactured, to carry on their testing and to derive understanding about their belongingss need to plan and fabricate specific constituent. There is a big figure of composite stuffs but due to limited clip graduated table merely carbon fibre complexs and honeycomb sandwich will be studied in this undertaking. Student will larn fabrication techniques and trial methods and will be able to do relevant observations and decision. The four types of trial will be perform: tensile trial, three-point-bend trial, bead trial and charpy trial. From the analysis of the consequences material belongingss will be determined and discussed.

Both the bead trial and three-point-bent trial will be perform on two type of specimens made by pupil. The charpy trial and the tensile trial will affect merely the individual laminate sample due to structural demands. For proving intents the specimens were produced in assortment of sizes and forms as follows: for tensile trial the Canis familiaris bone form, three-point-bend trial the rectangular samples, for bead trial the square specimens with drilled holes in each corner and for charpy trial little rectangular sample with notch in the center.

Sum uping, the purpose of this undertaking is to larn fabricating the laminated composite stuffs, conduct a figure of trials and analyzing the obtained consequences.


To analyze the theory of composite stuffs in order to choose the stuff and its construction to be used in the undertaking.

To carry on the research of fabricating methods of C fibre complexs and honey comb construction

To reexamine the theory of mechanical belongingss used for analysis and treatment obtained consequences

To bring forth specimens to be used for proving

-carbon fibre: Canis familiaris bone form, reqtangular, square.

-sandwich construction: rectangular and square.

To guarantee the undertaking is carry out in conformity with safety ordinances

To carry on proving utilizing drop trial, tensil trial, charpy trial

To obtain consequences from tried specimens

To analyze consequences, discuss and conclude

Literature Review

What are Complexs

The complexs are stuffs comprised of two or more distinguishable components physically bonded on a macroscopic graduated table. The components have different physical belongingss from each other and form composite stage which has considerable different belongingss form its components. [ 1 ] Other stuffs such as metals are besides combined on a macroscopic graduated table, nevertheless the ensuing stuff is macroscopically homogeneous where components can non be distinguish by bare oculus. [ 2 ] The cardinal characteristic of complexs is that they exhibit the best belongingss of their components.

By and large, the complexs are light fibres with high-strength and high-modulus playing as a support in environing them matrix which contribute to the addition in the volume of the construction.

The fibres can take signifier of the individual fibre or its multiple turn as narration or tow,

uninterrupted fibres, short fibres, beards, thrombocytes

Regardless of type of fibre used, there is ever a noticeable boundary between them, hence either fibres and matrix retain their ain physical and chemical belongingss. Despite that, they create alone features that they can non obtain when moving entirely.

The fibres act as a burden bearer, whereas surranding matrix supports them in the needed location and orientation, acts as a burden transportation organic structure between them, and protects them from environmental and mechanical amendss.

The fibres employed in the industry for a commercial graduated table are glass- , C fibre and Kevelar which can be used in signifier of uninterrupted or shredded fibres. The common matrix stuffs are polymer, a metal, or a ceramix.

There is a figure of combinations and agreements of fibres and matrix available. The most widely used signifier is laminate made of beds of fibres and matrix in order to obtain needed thickness and coveted belongingss.

The group of complexs with outstanding features such as strength and stiffness is defined with term advanced complexs to foreground high-performance belongingss of the stuff.

[ 5 ]

3.2 History and Use

The thought of complexs derive non from human but it originates in nature. Excellent illustrations are wood that consists of hempen cellulose in a matrix of lignin and mammalian bone where collagen filaments embedded in protein-calcium phosphate matrix form figure of bone beds.

First grounds of utilizing complexs by homo was described in the Old Testament in the book of Exodus, where the Israelites were adding straw to clay bricks in reenforcing intents. It is besides know that works fibres were used in bring forthing clayware by indigens of South and Central America.

[ 3 ]

Another application with usage of complexs found Mongolian in arcs production. The stretched portion is a combination of wood and cow sinews bonded together.

Nipponese blades and sabres blades are made of steel and soft Fe where the steel beds are formed into U form into which soft Fe is placed. It allows to obtain first-class opposition to flexure and impact.

[ 6 ]

First usage of C fibre was about 100 old ages ago as fibrils in electric lamp. However those fibres were reasonably weak and with little measure of support in comparing to today ‘s high-performance C fibres.

The development of C fibres took topographic point in 1960s and early 1970s at the same time to development of following rosins: 1969 ( phenoplasts ) and 1973 ( epoxies ) and many other thermosetting rosins such as polyimides, phenoplasts, vinyl esters, furfurans, silicones, polyurethanes and urethane propenoates.

[ 4 ]

3.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

Undoubtedly, the important advantage of composite is high-strength-to weight and modulus-to-weight ratios. Apart from that, there is figure of following advantages:

Lightness as consequence of high ratios mentioned above

Tailorable strength and stiffness belongingss in order to turn up them in the burden way

Excess burden waies ( fiber to fiber )

Non-corrosive belongingss ensuing in longer life of constituent

Decrease of fabrication cost due to take down figure of parts required

Ease with organizing desirable component constructions such as aerodynamic, hydrodynamic

Increased ( or decreased ) thermal or electrical conduction

Handiness of assortment of fabrication techniques

and disadvantages:

Relatively high cost of natural stuff and fiction

Transverse features

Structural failing of the matrix and its low lastingness

Environmental job as big figure of matrix can non be degraded

Trouble with analysis due to conceal defects

[ 7 ]

3.4. Application of Complexs

Composite stuffs are widely utilized in automotive, contraption, corrosion, electrical aerospace, Marine, architectural industry and are used in production of some athletics equipment such as tennis rackets, skis, golf sticks etc.

Figure 3.1 represents the ingestion of complexs in different industries.

Figure 3.1. Estimated 2004 composite ingestion [ 12 ]

Since guidance of aircrafts is extremely dependent on their weight, high specific strength and stiffness became improbably valuable for the full aerospace industry.

Hence, due to important part of aerospace construction to development of complexs, the big portion is devoted to this sector.

Military aircraft

Application of complexs provides aircrafts with smooth surface due to miss of studs and crisp passages that occur in metallic constructions what result in riddance of retarding force.

The aircraft parts made of complexs for case flaps, flying teguments, and assorted control surfaces are used in in following combatant theoretical accounts: F-14, F-15, F-16, aˆ¦. , F-22.

The figure 3.2. depicts the usage of composite stuff in military aircrafts since they were launched in early 1970 ‘s.

Figure 3.2. Composite structual application in military aircraft.

Due to diminish of stuff cost and engineering development composite stuffs became much more popular in full aerospace industry.

A 1994 NASA announced first-class public presentation of composite constituents in commercial aircraft which resulted in addition of their usage in aircraft construction in little business-type aircraft every bit good as in big, commercial-transport aircraft.

Originally, composited were used merely in little constructions which carried merely comparatively light burden, but today they are widely used besides in big, major constructions such as the wings and fuselage.

The first-class illustration represents the Cirrus SR-22 single-engine, depicted in figure3.3, with infinite for four riders. The fuselage and the wings of this aircraft are wholly made of complexs.


Figure 3.3. Cirrus SR-22 single-engine aircraft. [ 9 ]

Complexs found great application in aerospace industry chiefly due to their elation which allows to add an excess weight of critical systems such as airplane parachute and contributes to nest eggs of fuel.

The Boing 777 shown in Figure 3.4 consists of approximately 10 % of composite stuffs, chiefly graphite and epoxy. There besides other commercial aircrafts such as Boing 787 and Airbus 350 which fuselage and wings are made of complexs.

Figure 3.4. application of complexs in the Boing 777. [ 11 ]

Due to high stiffness-to-weight ratio, low thermic enlargement coefficient, and good vibration-damping features composite stuffs are used greatly besides by NASA in constructions such as such as graphite/epoxy lading bay doors and experimental graphite/epoxy solid rocket-booster motor instances and infinite station. Complexs are highly valuable stuff for aerospace due to weight save.

Furthermore, composite found besides application in I-beams, channel subdivisions, and other structural elements used in civil substructure because of corrosion opposition and thermic insularity which is a great advantage over the metal parts.

The high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness-to-weight ratio, first-class quiver damping, and fatigue opposition belongingss are employed for industry constructions such as air current turbines, in automotive vehicles, the organic structures of transit vehicles and the span decks. Weight nest eggs on specific constituents can transcend 70 % compared with steel elements.

A related application is wrapping concrete-steel span columns with composite tape in order to diminish impact of temblors.

[ 9 ]

3.5. Carbon and Graphite Fibers

Carbon/graphite fibres are major support with outstanding belongingss used in production high-performance polymer-matrix complexs.

In the black lead construction, the C atoms form the hexangular beds with a really heavy wadding in the bed planes.

The presence of the high-strength bond between C atoms in the bed plane contributes to an vastly high modulus, whereas the weak new wave der Waals -type bond between the neighboring beds result in a lower modulus in that way.

The presence ofA echt graphite crystal construction in the fibres is impossible, hence term “ graphite fibres ” refers to fibres with a C competition of more than 99 % . Fibers where a C competition histories for 80-95 % are called “ C fibres ” . Carbon competition depends on the heat intervention temperature ( procedure described below ) .

Presents, in fiction of C fibres the normally used technique is decomposition of organic precursors such as polyacrylonitrile ( PAN ) , pitch, and rayon.

The precursor stuff that undergoes pyrolysis should to run into undermentioned standards:

Adequate strength and belongingss leting for “ keeping the fibres together ” during full conversation procedure.

Non-melting belongingss of the precursor. The precursor may be of course infusible or stabilized.

Not complete volatilization of the precursor. The remain carbon output of precursor after conversation procedure contributes to organizing the graphite construction of the fibre, heightening its mechanical belongingss and economic value.

The moderately low cost of precursor stuff.

There are five phases of the procedure change overing PAN into C fibres:

[ 13 ]

Spining the PAN into a precursor fibre.

Stretching the precursor.

Stabilization by keeping the prestretched polymer under tenseness at a temperature of 205-240 A°C for up to 24h in an oxidizing ambiance ( air ) .

Carbonization at about 1500A°C in an inert ambiance. Carbonization is the procedure of pyrolizing stabilized Pan fibres to drive out most ( if non all ) noncarbon elements of the precursor fibres until they are basically transformed into C fibres. It is during this phase that the high mechanical belongingss found in most commercially available C fibres are developed.

Graphitization at about 3000A°C in inert ambiance. Graphitization heat interventions are carried out at temperatures in surplus of 1800A°C in order to better the tensile modulus of snap of the fibre by bettering the crystallite within each single fibre.


( oxidization )




( drive out non C elements ) Inter ambiance


Heat intervention

( better crystallite construction )

Inter ambiance




Surface intervention

Figure 3.5. Procedure of Converting PAN precursor fibres to carbon fibres.

There are different advantages and disadvantages of C fibres produced from each precursor. The PAN-based C fibres are taking type on the market due to good belongingss and comparative low cost. They find great application in military aircraft, missiles, and ballistic capsule constructions.

The C fibres with higher stiffness and thermic conductions are obtained from pitch, therefore they are widely used in satellite constructions and thermal-management applications eg. infinite radiators and electronic enclosures.

Due to low thermic conduction of rayon-based C fibres, they are used as insulating applications of for illustration projectile nozzels, missile re-entry vehicle nosecones, and heat shields.

Carbon fibres belongingss can be adjust with easiness during the fabrication procedure. Constantly developing engineering allows to obtain greater Texas Ranger of fibre belongingss and enable to spread out their applications.

There is a assortment of signifiers of C fibres such as: uninterrupted, chopper, woven fabric, or mat. Within continuous-graphite fibres the most popular are tows, narrations, wanderings, and tape. A tow is built up of fibrils in straight-laid package which figure vary from 400-10,000 or even 160,000. A narration is a distorted tow. Roving is a uninterrupted, parallel bundled group of fibers which are non twisted ( or twisted really small ) . A tape is composed of figure of tows or narrations ( e.g. 300 ) beside each other and joined together to run longitudinally.

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3.6. Fabrication of Composite

The industry of composite stuff is purely connected to the kind of application the stuff is used for. The fiction procedure of the structural component or even the complete construction begins at the phase of fiction of constructing stuff. Hence, it is important to take equal fabrication procedure every bit good as fibre and matrix type.

Manufacturing methods

3.6.1 Bag Molding Process

The Bag casting procedure is a method where merely stating preimpregnated or newly impregnated with wet rosin laminae are laid up in a cast, covered with flexible stop or bag, and cured with heat and force per unit area. After bring arounding, the stuff adopts mold form with cohesive construction. However, the procedure requires more stuffs that are indispensable for fabrication:

Release agents – prevent adhesion of composite stuff to the cast and facilitates its remotion.

Peel hemorrhoids – protect the mold surface from drosss.

Release movies – separate hemophiliac or breathing place plies from the composite laminate. It could be porous to enable rosin to flux through the movie.

Bleeder and breathing place plies – porous cloths that absorb excess rosin. Furthermore, breather plies acts as a tract taking off air and volatiles from the composite stuff.

Baging movies – offprint and protect composite stuff from autoclave environment.

In this procedure puting up, bagging and worker ‘s accomplishments are indispensable factors and well impact the quality of constituent. The size of the constituent is limited to the size of bring arounding equipment, peculiarly to the size of oven or sterilizer.

In term of force per unit area and applied heat the bag modeling procedure can be divided into force per unit area bag, vacuity bag and sterilizer.

In pressure-bag casting, the laminate is subjected to coerce above atmospheric and oven heat inside the closed cast.

In vacuum-bag casting, all drosss in signifier air and volatiles between the bag and laminate are eliminated by a vacuity pump. The atmospheric force per unit area is applied during oven hardening.

Autoclave processing is an extension of the vacuum-bag method. Curing of laminate in sterilizer is frequently under force per unit area, the complex is laid up and sealed in a vacuity bag. The procedure starts with raising the temperature in the autoclave chamber and general force per unit area which increases action of mechanical forces on the layup. The efficiency of conveyance of volatiles to the vacuity ports is improved, hence there is addition in wetting and flow of the rosin. Due to remotion of major measure of air and volatiles the nothingnesss content well diminutions.

Vacuum-bag and sterilizer are really common techniques in bring forthing bag-molded constituents chiefly due to moo tooling cost and low development of bring arounding setup ( oven and sterilizer ) . The procedure is non limited to few mold forms, therefore it may be used for assortment of parts. However, the tooling can be used merely for a specific portion for which it is designed. It is besides exposed to high force per unit area what causes its erosion and consequences in increasing in cost.

[ 15 ]

3.6.2. Hand Lay-up Technique

The type of fibres used in this procedure vary from woven fibre mat to chopped maroon mat for manus lay-up method and chopped fibres for spray layup. The procedure is used for development work, prototype fiction and fabricating big constituents in little measures. There are two types of cast: pit ( female ) and a positive ( male ) cast.

After using a release agent a cast is coated with gel that guarantee smooth surface that in instance fabrication boat hulls or aircraft exterior parts is highly of import. Typical release agents are: wax, polyvinyl intoxicant ( PVA ) , fluorocarbons, silicones, release documents and release movies, and liquid internal releases. The gel coat is normally a polyester, mineral-filled, pigmented bed or coating and it is an outer surface of the laminate. When thermosetting polymer rosin and the fibres are laid up, a roller is used for consolidation the beds. Following, equal temperature is applied to finish bring arounding procedure.

[ 16 ] [ 17 ]

The development of “ prepreg tape “ contributed to betterment of full fabrication procedure of composite stuffs. A tape with fibres precoated with polymer rosin makes there is no longer demand of blending the rosin components in the right proportions and paying attending to unite decently the rosin with fibres. Exploitation of thermosetting rosin allows to hive away the tape at the room temperature until it is melted during concluding usage. The large figure of prepreg tape is produced in the procedure called hot-melt. The method with usage of prepreg tape employ laying-up the tape orientated adequately on a cast following bring arounding the laminate at needed temperature and force per unit area.

[ 18 ]


Pultrusion is an machine-controlled fabrication procedure for bring forthing uninterrupted lengths of strengthened polymer structural forms with changeless cross-section profiles. The name of the procedure refers to the manner in which the complex is fabricated, even though there is a common nexus with bulge the portion is pulled out through a rosin and heated die alternatively of forced out by force per unit area. There is figure of profiles produced in this procedure by the usage of different dices such as rods, tubings and assortment of other structural forms.

In this procedure uninterrupted wanderings fibrils, fibres packages or uninterrupted glass mats are pulled through a liquid rosin which saturates the the glass support. Next the stuff is pulled through appropriate dices utilizing uninterrupted drawing device, the excess rosin and air are removed. The mass of fabricated composite adopts to the form of the dice and in two temperature zones the merchandise is structurally shaped.

Materials manufactured in pultrusion procedure benefits in high strength to weigh ratio, corrosion and heat opposition, dielectric belongingss every bit good as dimensional stableness. Apart from assortment of thermosetting polymer rosin such as polyester, A polyurethane, A vinylester, A epoxy, thermoplastic matrices can besides be used in this technique.

[ 19 ] [ 20 ]

Honeycombs constructions

Definition of sandwich construction

A sandwich construction ( honeycomb ) is two thin facings or teguments are assembled by adhering or welding on a igniter nucleus that is used to divide them two. The nucleus stuff has normally low strength belongingss, nevertheless its higher thickness provides the construction with flexing stiffness with overall low denseness. The features of this honeycomb complex are really light weight, high flexural rigidness and first-class thermic insularity belongingss. However, certain types of nucleus are comburent and they are more prone to undergo buckling. There is besides a hazard of pin downing a liquid in a cellular construction which is hard to place and removal.

[ “ Composite Material Design and Applications ” , 2nd edition, Daniel Gay, Suong V.Hoa page 53 ]


The nucleus of honeycomb sandwich every bit good as facing can be build of assortment of stuffs and constellations. Within honeycomb nucleus there are most common:

4.2.1. Hexagonal Core

The Hexagonal Core constellation represents the most basic and most popular construction. It can be made of all metallic every bit good as non-metallic stuffs. The size of the cell influences the cost of the construction. Smaller cells are more expensive but contribute to better adhering country. However, bigger and cheaper cells may take to clamber surface harm by ‘dimpling consequence ‘ .

Figure 4.1. Hexagonal Core Configuration


The OX-Core is hexangular constellation with the enlargement of cells in ”W ” way and small curve in “ L ” way. The cells are organizing rectangular form construction which, in comparing with hexangular constellation, supply higher shear strength in “ W ” way and smaller in “ L ” way.

Furthermore, the hexangular cells provide minimal denseness for a certain sum of stuff while bring forthing the rectangular form in “ W ” way is more convenient during the fabrication procedure.

Figure 4.2. OX-Core Configuration


The Flex-Core construction represents ‘wave ‘ form constellation with non-buckling belongingss of the cell walls where anticlastic curvature is well minimized. Flexi-Core with tight radii of the curvatures is easy to fabricate and consequences in increasing of shear belongingss when compared to hexangular constellation with the same denseness. It is available chiefly in aluminum, NomexA® , and fibreglass substrates.

Figure 4.3. Flex-Core Configuration


This constellation provides the ample aluminum cells of specific form. The characteristic of Double-Flex is outstanding formability and high specific compaction belongingss. It is the most formable cell constellation.

Figure 4.4. Double-Flex Configuration

Reinforced Hexagonal

This hexangular constellation is reinforced with a sheet of substrate stuff that is placed horizontally in the “ L ” way in order to better mechanical belongingss. The Reinforced Hexagonal is able to transport high burden due to its heavy denseness, therefore is ideal for attachment points etc.

Figure 4.5. Reinforced Hexangular Configuration

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The Tube-Core construction is designed to absorb the energy without the loss of crush strength that arises at the unsupported borders of standard honeycomb. This constellation consists of

alternate sheets of level aluminum foil and corrugated aluminium foil wrapped around a spindle and adhesively bonded. The diameter can change from 1/2 inch to 30 inches and lengths from 1/2 inch to 36 inches.

Figure 4.6. Tube Core Configuration

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Fabrication of honeycomb nucleus

The honeycomb nucleus is chiefly manufactured by enlargement, nevertheless in order to obtain high denseness construction the corrugate method may be employed.

Expansion Procedure

The fabrication of honeycomb by enlargement method initiates with the stacking of sheets of the substrate stuff on which adhesive node lines have been printed.

The adhesive lines are so cured to organize a HOBE block, where HOBE represents Honeycomb Before Expansion.

After bring arounding is completed, the HOBE block could be expanded in order to supply an expanded block. Slices of the expanded block could be later cut to the preferable T dimension.

HOBE pieces may besides be cut from the HOBE block to the equal T dimension and so expanded. Slices can be expanded to regular hexagons, underexpanded to 6-sided diamonds, and overexpanded to about rectangular cells.

The expanded sheets are cut to the needed L dimension ( ribbon way ) and W dimension ( transverse to the thread ) .

The enlargement procedure demands well high inter-sheet bond strenght

The enlargement procedure is depicted in figure below:

Figure 4.7.

4.3.2. Corrugated Procedure

The intent of bring forthing honeycomb by corrugate method is to obtain high denseness merchandise.

In this procedure there are following stairss: the adhesive is applied to the corrugated nodes, so the corrugated sheets are stacked into blocks. Next, the node adhesive cured, and in the terminal the sheets are trimmed to the desired nucleus thickness.

Figure 4.8.

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Honeycomb Sandwich Production Methods

There are at that place general methods for industry of honeycomb sandwich:

Heated Press, used for the fiction of level board or simple preformed panels.

Vacuum Bag Processing, used for curving and complex signifier panels.

Matched Mould Processing, used for batch industry of finished panels.

Heated Imperativeness

In this method it is required panel to be assembled prior to bring arounding as a individual shooting procedure. The facing tegument is be a metallic stuff every bit good as a prepreg which could besides be pre-cured by utilizing a imperativeness, followed by adhering with a movie adhesive bed. Further bonding does non necessitate advanced equipment and simple tooling can be used to finish the assembly.

Vacuum Bag Processing

In the vacuity bag method the constituent is required once more to be assembled for remedy as a individual shooting procedure.

The vacuity is obligatory in order to accomplish consolidation. The bring arounding takes topographic point in an oven or in autoclave where possible higher force per unit area can be applied. In this method as a facing teguments can be used stuffs such as the prepreg, preformed composite or metallic.

Match Mould Processing

The best advantage of this procedure is that it allows to obtain high degrees of tolerance and surface finish honeycomb complexs. The method is perfect for individual changeable remedy procedure where the heat and force per unit area remedy rhythm are applied by the het tools with external mechanical force per unit area or non heated tools placed in a imperativeness or oven. The room temperature bring arounding adhesive cold bonding may besides be used in instance the produced portion is excessively large for available equipment or when the equipment is merely unavailable.

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Mechanical Properties

The strength and stiffness of honeycomb is relative to the denseness which is illustrated in figure:


When the burden is applied at the free terminal of a sandwich panel, the bending minute is created with its upper limit at the fixed terminal. A shear force occurs along the length of the full construction. The bottom tegument is in compaction and the top tegument in tenseness and the nucleus transportations shear forces between them in order to enable full panel to move as homogeneous construction.

Fugure 4.9 Load transportation in a honeycomb


The warp of a honeycomb consists of flexing and shear constituents. The bending warp is related to tensile and compressive forces of the facing, the shear warp refers to shear modulus of the nucleus. However, when the span of the panel is big compared to its thickness, the shear warp will be negligible.

The warp of the sandwich panel can be schematically described as:

Entire Deflection = Bending Deflection + Shear Deflection.

Figure 4.10 Deflection of Honeycomb

The extra parametric quantity that affects panel warp ( every bit good as the tegument emphasis ) is besides material thickness.

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Compressive Properties

There are two major types of compressive strength: the stabilized- and the bare. Basically, the stabilised compressive strength is the ultimate compressive strength of the honeycomb when loaded in the T way.

The bare compressive strength represents the ultimate compressive strength of the nucleus when loaded in the T way without stabilisation of the cell edges. The value is usually used for an credence standard.

Figure 4.11. Honeycomb Compressive stress-Strain Curve.

Crush Strength

The crush strength is the mean burden applied per unit cross-sectional country that causes a crush of honeycomb construction.

The honeycomb deforms plastically and crushes uniformly after transcending its ultimate compressive strength at a changeless emphasis degree ( vary for different nucleus stuffs and denseness ) . This relation is depicted in figure 4.12

It consequences in easy anticipating of the soaking up capacity of the honeycomb and its broad usage as the energy soaking up constituents.

In such a scenario, the nucleus tends to oppress a small when the compaction extremum is being removed. The crush strength of honeycomb lessenings with increasing angle burden from the thickness.

Figure 4.12. Load-Deflection Curve

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4.5.5. Shear Strength

Honeycomb sandwich due to its non-uniform construction is subjected to combination of shear strength and tenseness.

Shear strength depends upon parametric quantities such as confronting thickness, nucleus thickness, confronting stuff and loading conditions and it could be affected even by a really little constituent loaded parallel to the cell axis. The shear strength has a bigger value for dilutant nucleus and smaller value for thicker one. In instance of really thin nucleus the filleting of the core-to-skin adhesives may merely beef up the wall cell or filet it wholly what has an impact on the shear strength of the honeycomb panel. The type of adhesive used in the construction besides affects the shear belongingss as the filleting deepness varies for different adhesives.

The another of import factor for shear strength is the confronting thickness as the teguments carry shear tonss in add-on to what the nucleus carries and can take on extra shear tonss after the nucleus has yielded.

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5.1.Elements of Mechanical Behaviour of Composites

When discoursing about mechanics of complexs there is of import to retrieve it is non a homogeneous stuff but material consisting of two offprints stages in a individual lamina that builds laminate and full construction.

As a effect of it, there are two types of interactions in complexs: micromechanical and macromechanical behavior of composite stuff. The first one refers to interaction of components ( fibre and matrix ) and their impact on the individual lamina in a laminate. The 2nd concerns mechanical behavior of composite stuff and construction disregarding all interactions at components degree. Macromecanics behaviour is specified by emphasis, strain and the same mechanical belongingss as homogeneous stuff. Micromechanics focuses on relation between composite belongingss and component belongingss.

Most complexs are heterogenous and anisotropic where belongingss determinates its orientation. The complexness of emphasis and strive behavior is greater in instance of anisotropic stuffs than in isotropous stuff. For case, in instance of isotropic stuff, a normal emphasis bases for normal strains and a shear emphasis for shear strains. Whereas, in an anisotropic composite, normal emphasis may concern both normal strains and shear strains, and a shear emphasis may concern both shear strains and normal strains.

An isotropous stuff exposed to a alteration of temperature undergoes enlargement or bottleneck that is unvarying in all waies whereas anisotropic composite under the same conditions demonstrates inhomogeneous enlargement or bottleneck ensuing in stuff deformation. These effects well affect word picture of composite behaviors along with the analytical mechanics of complexs.

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5.2. Cardinal mechanical theory


Stress is the internal opposition of a stuff to the falsifying effects of an external force or burden. These counter forces tend to return the atoms to their normal places. The entire opposition developed is equal to the external burden. This opposition is known as emphasis.

The emphasis is force applied per unit country of a stuff expressed in Newton per square metre unit [ N/m2 ] . Where 1Pa = [ N/m2 ] .

( 5.1. )

where: is a emphasis

F is a force applied

A0 the cross-sectional country

The discrepancy of this is tensile strength defined as the maximal emphasis a stuff can defy without breakage, at an unchanged original cross-sectional country.


Strain is a ratio of increasing length to original length. There are two types of strain: positive ( if fibres stretched ) and negative ( if fibres compressed ) . Strain is measured by strain pots that covert mechanical gesture into electronic signal. Strain is a non-dimensional feature, expressed in per centum.

( 5.2. )

Where is normal strain

L0 is the original length of a organic structure

L is the concluding length of a organic structure

Young ‘s modulous

Modulus of snap or Young ‘s Modulus is expressed as the ratio of emphasis to strive in elastic part of the stuff. It indicates stuff ‘s stiffness, or ability to defy bending.

( 5.3. )

Hooke ‘s jurisprudence

Hooke ‘s lawA ofA snap provinces that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the burden applied to it. This regulation applies every bit long as burden does non transcend the material’sA elastic bound.

Materials obeys Hooke ‘s jurisprudence are known asA linear-elasticA . This jurisprudence stats relative strain to emphasize values, which is diagrammatically illustrated as a additive curve.

In complexs proving this jurisprudence is utile for analysis of the tensile trial when in the initial phase the ratio of emphasis and strain is a changeless.

3-point crook

The trial is normally performed on Universal Testing Machine and it is used to mensurate values of the residuary strength, the energy soaking up every bit good as the modulus of snap in flexing Ef, Flexural strss I?f, flexural strain Iµf and the flexural strss-strain response of the stuff.

Three point bend trial involves puting a rectangular specimen horizontally on two supports where the burden P is applied at the Centre of the specimen in an x-y plane and it ‘s distributed within its breadth ( w=2c ) .

Fig Three Point Bending

The value of emphasis in N-N axis is zero, while in the Y axis the emphasis represents tensile emphasis in the positive way the compressive emphasis in negative way. The ensuing force is recorded.

For rectangular cross subdivision the values of flexural emphasis in the outer fibres at center and flexural strain in the outer surface are calculated with following equations:

( 5.4. )

( 5.5. )

The modulus of snap in bending is hence:

( 5.6. )

The footings used in these looks are:

P = burden at an instantaneous point ( N )

L = length of support span ( millimeter )

B = breadth of trial beam ( millimeter )

vitamin D = deepness of trial beam ( millimeter )

D = warp at the Centre of the beam ( millimeter )

m = gradient of the initial consecutive line portion of the load/deflection graph ( N/mm )

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Charpy Test

( Charpy Impact Test )

The charpy trial was invented by Gallic scientist Georges Charpy in 1905 and approved in 1933.

The intent of this trial is to determinate the sum of energy that is absorbed by stuff prior to fracture after sudden, known sum of kinetic force is applied to specimen.

Consequences can be obtained rapidly and cheaply nevertheless they are merely comparative.

The charpy trial involves interrupting the specimen by a cock on pendulum arm, under status defined as criterion. The of import factor is temperature, as the opposition of stuff against daze lessening with decreasing temperature. The specimen is notched at its Centre prior to proving and placed on two protagonists, held steadfastly at each terminal. The cock that is set into singing gesture and the striker impact the specimen that absorbs energy until it yields. The fictile distortion at the notch begins, nevertheless the specimen still absorbs the energy at the plastic zone at the notch. When farther energy soaking up is impossible, specimen breaks. The captive energy ( in Joule ) determinates the opposition of the stuff to floor tonss.

The charpy impact machine

[ 31 ] [ 32 ]

Tensile trial

In tensile trial the specimen is subjected to uniaxial tenseness until breaks. The trial is used to determinate ultimate tensile strength, maximal elongation, decrease country every bit good as features such as Young ‘s modulus, A Poisson ‘s ratio, A output strength, andA strain-hardening.

In the trial procedure a specimen is placed in the testing machine and a bit by bit increasing tensile burden is applied along its longest axis until the sample failures. Acting of the tensile force causes elongation of the gage subdivision what is measured and registered by computing machine.

The specimen is a standardised sample cross-section, its form remains a Canis familiaris bone. It has two big shoulders needed to be steadfastly gripped in proving machine and a smaller gage subdivision where elongation and break occur.

A tensile specimen is a standardised sample cross-section. It has two shoulders and a gage ( subdivision ) in between. The shoulders are big so they can be readily gripped, whereas the gage subdivision has a smaller cross-section so that the distortion and failure can happen in this country

The equations 5.4-5.6. can be used to cipher composite belongingss, in tensile testing every bit good as following equations which are used are for the original cross-sectional country and decrease in country.

( 5.7. )

( 5.8. )

[ 33 ]

5.6. Drop-weight trial

Drop-testing is normally performed to stipulate the tolerance of an impact on the stuff.

In the testing procedure, the specimen is clamped stiffly to a heavy tabular array that is guided along perpendicular rods or horizontal tracks to hold a individual impact against the land ( or a perpendicular barrier ) . [ 34 ]

In bead trial the regulations for possible energy and the kinetic energy are used to mensurate the impact which specimen can defy before failure.

( 5.9 )

( 5.10 )

( 5.11 )

The footings are:

EP = possible energy ( J )

m = mass ( kilogram )

g = acceleration due to gravitation ( m/s2 )

I”h = alteration in tallness ( m )

V = concluding speed ( m/s )

u = initial speed ( m/s )

EK = kinetic energy ( J )

[ 35 ]

Two rail shear trial

Shear emphasis

Two-rail shear trial method is used to mensurate in-plane shear informations which is recorded by the strain pots.

The mean shear emphasis along the specimen lading axes ( ten, y ) can be described by simple equation:

( 5.12 )

Where L =specimen length along the y way,

P = applied burden along the y way

T = specimen thickness.

[ 36 ]

Shear Modulus

Shear modulus, alsoA modulus of rigidness, denoted byA G can be calculated utilizing the undermentioned equation:

( 5.13 )

( for + 45A° or – 45A° strain pot )


G = shear modulus [ KPa ]

I” P/ I” vitamin E = incline of the secret plan of burden as a map of distortion within the

additive part of the curve [ KPa/m ]

L = entire length [ millimeter ]

T = thickness [ millimeter

[ 37 ]

Two Rail Shear Test Method

In 2 rail trial method a level rectangular specimen with holes along opposite sides is bolted to steel parallel rails. The burden is applied at the terminals of the tracks and distributed aboard each rail. The trial is conducted harmonizing to the standard ASTM D4255/D4255M-01. The two-rail shear can be loaded in tenseness every bit good as in compaction. On the specimen surface the strain pot is installed. It is three-element strain pot rosettes supervising the resulting strains.

Figure 1 Assembly Rail Shear Apparatus

Significance and Use

The two-rail is a method in which in-plane shear belongingss for stuff specifications, research and development, and design.

The undermentioned are known as factors holding an impact on shear emphasis: type and quality of the stuff, methods of stuff fiction, orientation of fibrils in laminate, machining of specimen, environment of proving, specimen alliance and gripping, velocity of proving, time/length of proving, temperature, happening of nothingnesss, fibre to matrix ratio.

Two-rail technique is used to place material belongingss such as:

In-plane shear emphasis and shear strain response

In-plane shear modulus of snap

Offset shear emphasis, and

Maximal in-plane shear emphasis.


Unfortunately, it is impossible to make pure and unvarying shear emphasis status to failure for every stuff. However there are test methods that can run into chief technology demands and give reasonably accurate consequences. In proving composite stuffs the two-rail method with off-axis burden produces comparatively little in-plane tensile burden.

specimen fabrication- The undermentioned factors can impact belongingss of composite stuff: unequal stuff production, creative activity of nothingnesss, wrong machining, impropriate fibre alliance,

Buckling – Buckling of the specimen, peculiarly the thin once is the common job while the burden is applied in rail shear proving. In order to forestall it, the surface strains is measured on opposite sides of the specimens with three-element strain pot rosettes. It is misdirecting to construe buckling as the maximal shear strength.

Delamination – Specimens with fiber orientation 45A° are likely to undergo delamination when loaded in compaction but it will non impact the strain gauge readings.

Gripping- the possible failure can happen due to impropriate gripping alongside the tracks. The bolts can be excessively loosen or to tight fasten. There is besides chance of inappropriate placement of the holes every bit good as it ‘s dimensions.

The premise of two-rail methods is that pure shear occurs throughout the length of specimen gage subdivision. Although, the pot subdivision terminals have zero shear emphasis as no grip and no restraints is applied at that place. A emphasis is distributed in the country from the terminals to interior parts of the pot subdivision.

[ 3 ]

The two-rail trial method is valid for complexs with length/width ratio less than 10 and Poisson ‘s ratio ( laminate to specimen borders ) is less than integrity.

If the Poisson ‘s ratio of the laminates is high ( 45 A° fibre orientation complexs ) , the shear emphasis distribution is really irregular and leads to really low values of shear strength.

Therefore two rail method requires relevant laminate orientation in order to obtain true values. The geometric construction affects composite during the trial as follow:

The 0A° fibre orientation contributes to creative activity of really high normal emphasis that is distributed sheer to the fibrils

The 90A° fibre orientation causes premature failure of the fibrils.

The facet ratio influences well in-plane emphasis distribution

[ 4 ]

A Strain Pot

AA strain gaugeA is a device with an agreement of two or more pot grids which determinates the normalA strainA along different waies on the surface of an object. The strain pot comprises of anA insulatingA flexible backup which supports a metallic foil form. The relevant adhesive ( such as cyanoacrylate ) is used to bond the gage with the trial portion. Along object distortion, the foil is besides deformed which leads to its electrical opposition to alter, normally measured by a Wheatstone span.

There are three basic types of strain pot rosettes ( each in a assortment of signifiers ) :

aˆ? Tee: comprise two grids perpendicular to each other.

aˆ? Rectangular: consists of three grids, where foremost and 2nd grids every bit good as 2nd and 3rd grids are positioned at angle of 45A° to each other. Hence, the angle between first and 3rd grids is 90A° .

aˆ? Delta: built of three grids, all of which are located at angle of 60A° to each other.

Figure Basic rosette type classify by grid orientation: a ) tee ; B ) rectangular ; degree Celsius ) delta.

The tee rosette should be used merely when the principal strain waies are known in progress. Otherwise, the rectangular and delta rosette should be used as they are designed for applications where rule strains are unknown and can be installed irrespective of its orientation. Geometric abnormalities such as holes, ribs etc can impact the rule waies, therefore in this instance extra safeguards may be taken.

Gauge operating

A strain gage operates based on the physical belongings ofA electrical conductanceA and its dependance on the music director ‘s geometry.

When anA electrical conductorA is stretched and reaches the bounds of itsA elasticityA in the mode that it does non interrupt or for good deform, it will go narrower and longer, alterations that addition its electrical opposition end-to-end.

From the other manus, when a music director is compressed, but non buckle, it will broaden and shorten, alterations that lessening its electrical opposition end-to-end.

Electrical resistanceA of the strain gage is recorded and on that that based applied stressed may be calculated. Stain pot measures merely distortion on the limited country of an object and can be manufactured little plenty to set up emphasis rules within “ finite elements ”

The electromotive force of 5V or 12V is applied to applied to input leads of the gage web, and a electromotive force reading is taken from the end product leads mVs.

The most common are foil strain gages, they are attached to prove portion with a particular gum. There are many types of gum depending on clip graduated table of measurings. Eg. for short term installings ( up to few hebdomads ) cyanoacrylic gum can be used, but to bond gages with on object for longer period the epoxy gum is required.

The surface readying is really of import. It must be smoothed, neutralized, deoild and glued instantly after fixing in order to avoid its contaminating. Otherwise obtained consequences may be undependable and generate unanticipated mistakes.

6. Apparatus

The nature of probe of fibre C laminate and honeycomb sandwich demands spliting apparatus into two classs: fabrication and testing.

Apparatuss used for fabrication:

Mold – the glass home base used as a templet.

Carbon fiber sheet – a natural stuff of C fibre.

Nomex – a stuff used as a nucleus in a honeycomb construction.

Bleeder ( perforated fictile sheet ) – a stuff used to absorb the extra rosin from the specimen during hardening.

Breather ( felt sheet ) – a stuff that prevents creative activity of the nothingnesss from the air trapped between the beds.

Vacuum bag ( pulyethane bag ) – the stuff that enables to keep the vacuity during bring arounding

Release agent ( wax ) – the substance covering the cast taking at easy and safe taking the healed specimen.



Dental investigation



Hole clout



Latex baseball mitts

Mylar tape

Pressure Valve

Vacuum port

Weighing graduated tables

Epoxy rosin

Gel pen


Drilling machine

Cuting machine

PCT-2A Cellophane Tape

M-Bond 200 Catalyst

M-bond 200 adhesive

Apparatuss used for proving:

The Universal Tensile Test Machine

The Universal Drop Test Machine

The Universal Charpy Test Machine

The Tensile-Compression Testing Machine

Personal computer and pressman

Laptop runing the package LabView 7 Express made by National Instruments ( Texas ) .

Memory Card: DAC CAD A1-16E-4

The signal part unit SC 2043 stroke/SG

Vernier Calliper

Strain pot instrument

Specimens: 3 dog-bone, specimen with notch, square specimen with four drilled holes in the corners, honey comb rectangular and square specimens, two rectangular specimens with six drilled holes

7. Industry of composite

7.1. Fabrication of specimens for tensile/ impact/ 3-poit crook and charpy trial intents.

The pupil begun to fabricate the C fibre composite constituents by step the C fiber sheet and taging on it five squares of dimentions 40cmx40cm with fiber orientation of 0A° , 45A° , 90A° , 45A° , 0A° . It was decided that the big square composite laminate ( 40cmx40cm ) would be manufactured foremost and so pare to dimensions required for proving intents. A few troubles associating to mensurating and cutting C fiber sheets were encountered. The job represented non “ stable ” construction of the sheet ensuing in motion of individual fibres orientation by touching or delicate drawing what required pupil ‘s caution and preciseness. In add-on, cutting stuff caused unpleasant dust which inhaling was n’t recommended.

For industry complexs in wet lay-up method it was important to fix all equipment prior to the procedure.

As the first, a hemophiliac, the breathing place and a vacuity bag were cut severally to dimensions 45x45cm, 50x50cm and 65x65cm. On the breathing place the grade was made and so utilizing the hole-punch and hammer the hole was cut out for vacuity port intents. In order to guarantee the smooth surface of the constituent and extinguish possible taints, the glass cast was cleaned suitably utilizing the emery paper, a coppice and propanone. The mylar tape were used as a sealer and formed to a square form of dimensions of about 60x60cm. The cast were coated with release agent to guarantee smooth separation and minimalize possible mechanical harm after constituent would bring around.

The matrix readying had to take in really short clip before the start of the lay-up due to its fast hardening belongingss. The epoxy rosin and hardener were assorted with a 3:1 ( 120g of epoxy and 40g of hardener ) ratio in the paper cup with noticeable heat emanation. There was a necessity of have oning a latex baseball mitts by the pupil in order to forestall the tegument from chemical harm.

Once all equipment was prepared, the pupil started puting the C fibre sheets in mentioned above orientation 0A° , 45A° , 90A° , 45A° , 0A° . Each cloth beds was covered by the epoxy with a usage of coppice that enabled its even distributing. The hemophiliac and breathing place bag were positioned on the lay-up constituent and the vacuity port was placed through pre punched hole in the vacuity bag. The particular attention was took while bag was being put across the specimen as any at bay air would take to null creative activity. Then, the vacuity bag was stuck to the seal tape and checked if there is any cryings. The vacuity port was connected to the hosiery of the vacuity gaudery, turned on and left for 5 hours to bring around.

The same activities were repeated for industry of honeycomb sandwich with a difference that Nomex nucleus were used between two laminates.

The healed specimen were so cut to dimensions required for proving intents. It will be discussed in the following chapter.

Fabrication of composite for Two Rail Shear Test intents

Specimens Manufacturing

The specimen were manufactured in manus lay-up method described in subdivision 7.1. The images for fabricating procedure can be found in appendix G.

After bring arounding clip, pupil cut out six rectangular specimens of dimensions 152x76mm.

Then six holes in each specimen were drilled with driller in figure 1, appendix J.

The exact dimensions of specimen are depicted in figureaˆ¦..

Figure Two-Rail Shear Specimen

Strain Gage Instalation

First, pupil polished the surface with the emery paper in order to guarantee the surface is smooth and without any abnormality. Then severally conditioner and neutralizer were applied to the top of specimen with a cotton tissues and by round motions. Once the surface was ready, pupil started fixing the strain pot that would suit the Centre of the specimen.

Student removed the pot with pincers from fictile envelope and placed it on clean glass plane. As the pot needed to be soldered with terminuss, they had to be prepared every bit good. Student removed long unit of terminuss and cut it in braces with tweezers taking attention they did n’t undergo any harm or taint. Then the PCT-2A cellophane tape was used to maintain terminuss at the right place and at the distance about 1.6mm from the pot. Student drew a Centre lines with a pencil on the specimen to guarantee the pot would be precisely in the Centre of specimen. Then the M-Bond 200 Catalyst was applied on the C fibre specimen. Student prepared a cotton tissues as it was needed for pressing the pot to the specimen for about one minute ( once the adhesive is applied the hardening clip is really fast ) . The M-bond 200 adhesive was applied at the Centre of the pot every bit good as at terminal undersides. Then pupil placed the pot at the traversing point of Centre lines and with mentioned above cotton tissues made sure the pot with terminuss were steadfastly attached to the specimen. Student allowed about one hebdomad the adhesive to dry decently. Then the cellophane tape, which kept terminuss in right place before bonding was removed. The pot and terminuss were soldered with each other and got ready for following phase – wiring.

Student cut eight overseas telegrams, each overseas telegram was about one metre long and consisted of four dilutant overseas telegrams in different colorss: white, ruddy, black and green. As merely three of them were needed pupil removed ruddy one and somewhat separated the staying three from each other at both terminals. About 8 millimeter of plastic coating was removed in order to enable its farther soldering what can be seen in appendix J, figures 12, 13. Student coated the terminals of wires with solder and so soldered them at one terminal with the port connection in relevant sequence and at the other terminal with pot.

Ready for proving, specimen was connected via the port connection with SC 2043 stroke/SG signal part unit which was straight linked with the computing machine shown in figure 19, appendix J.

The strain pots were installed on the C fibre ( 1 ) and C fibre ( 2 ) specimen with orientation as is shown on figure below:

Figure strain rosette orientation in C fibre specimens severally ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) .


As two specimen of fiber C were manufactured and used in proving phase, in farther description C fibre specimen with channels 0-2 will be described as C fibre ( 1 ) , and C fiber specimen with channels 2-5 as C fibre ( 2 ) .

Figure Schematic of terminology of C fibre specimens used in Two Rail Shear Testing.



The specimens which undergone proving were made of 5 ply uninterrupted C fibre with orientation 0A° , 45A° , 90A° , 45A° , 0A° . First of wholly, the Universal Tensile Test Machine every bit good as Personal computer were switched on, running the plan for graphical analysis. The machine was set at the velocity rate of 12.5mm/min.

Using a Vernier Calliper the specimen were measured and the values were insert into plan.

The specimen were positioned at the proving topographic point and the tensile trial machine began proving after exchanging on the control panel. Two samples of the specimen made of the same laminate were tested. Initially, there was a concern about proper standardization of the graduated table as the forces and warp axes could hold excessively little or excessively value but the graphs and consequences were right.

During the trial pupil stayed moderately off as there was a possibility that winging dust could wound the eyes. The same process were repeated for proving honeycomb specimens.

Tensile trial

The tried specimens were the same laminates as it antecedently described.

After mensurating specimens with Vernier Calliper the first specimen were placed into jaws and the machine calibrated adequately in order to supply the specimen with proper clasp. After, puting the first sample the uncertainness about right clasp arose. During the trial it was found that the first specimen fractured really rapidly. It was decided to reiterate the trial utilizing the same scenes but with operator that would keep the specimen in the right place. The 2nd testing was successful and allowed to obtain the proper consequences. The same activity was conducted while proving a honeycomb.

Drop-weight trial

The bead trial were carried on utilizing the same samples. After step the specimen it was placed on the of the gigue consisting of lower and upper. The specimen was attached to the gigue base with four prison guards in order to keep it in stable place, hence all samples had to hold drilled duplicate holes.

The saloon that was dropped onto the specimen was placed manually into the rig at specific tallness, so clicked into place to keep. After, taking all measurings and steadfastly puting the proving sample, the saloon was released and fall down at the specimen. The harm magnitude of the specimen specified the capacity for energy absorbed of the saloon dropped from specific tallness. The honeycomb specimen was tested utilizing the same process.

Charpy trial

In this trial merely the one specimen was tested made of individual laminate with jumping the honeycomb sandwich sample. The sample was placed in the notch and pendulum axe launched into singing gesture. After sample fractured the consequence was read.

Two Rail Shear Test

Prior to proving specimen with installed strain gage, one of spear specimens were destructive tested in order to look into burden needed to interrupt the sample ( appendix J, figures 16-18 ) . As the specimen broke under the burden 22.75KN, pupil knew how to graduate the machine decently.

The specimen with strain gage were connected to the computing machine runing the package LabView 7 Express made by National Instruments ( Texas ) . There were besides used: The signal part unit SC 2043 stroke/SG and memory card DAC CAD A1-16E-4. Their images can be found in Appendix J, figures 19 and 20.

After look intoing if the circuit works right, pupil placed the specimen into a gigue and fasten bolts. The gigue with a specimen was placed into a tension-compression testing machine, and machine calibrated. Student were using the burden bit by bit by turning the wheel of proving machine anti-clockwise. The burden was increasing by 0.5 KN after each clip pupil had to take the reading of warp and strain of three channels displayed on the computing machine screen. The illustration of channels layout is depicted in appendix L, figure 4. It was of import to take the reading rapidly every bit shortly as the burden was applied in order to obtain accurate consequences. It was connected to altering value of strain under burden being increased. The figures for channels looking on the computing machine screen were altering values really fast as the stuff was deforming, what could impact the truth of taking the proper value.

During proving the first specimen marked as C fibre ( 1 ) , the checking sound at the burden of 19 KN. The specimen fractured after using the burden of 24.5 KN and the burden value on Tension-Compression Testing Machine was instantly dropped to 0 KN.

Carbon fibre ( 2 ) specimen started to interrupt at the burden of 18KN as so the characteristic snap sound was observed. The burden of 23.5 KN caused break of the specimen, nevertheless it proceeded in different mode than in specimen ( 1 ) . The burden on proving machine could hold been still applied, but it was bit by bit diminishing.

9. Consequences



The consequences obtained from proving the individual laminate specimen with fiber orientation 0A° , 45A° , 90A° , 45A° , 0A° are shown in the graph 2-3 Appendix C

On the graphs are shown he values for flexural strain at ecstasy which is expressed as a per centum of the gage length, and three point crook emphasis ( flexural emphasis ) .

The tabular arraies and graphs contain all of import information such as values of emphasis and strain.

The specimen dimensions every bit good as all informations were entered into a spreadsheet which along with equal equations discussed in chapter 5 were used to bring forth a graph of stress/strain curve and a chart of energy absorbed up to ultimate tensile emphasis graphs 1 in Appendix E

As it is seen on graph 1in Appendix E the C fibre 5 ply specimen fractures at higher emphasis than honeycomb sandwich specimen. The values of emphasis at rupture are severally 3.547 MPa and 3.047 MPa. The strain value is much higher for honeycomb sandwich than for C fibre 5 ply and it accounts for 19 % and 4.5 % severally.


It could be noticed that the individual lamina has much higher Young ‘s Modulus 0.79GPa th


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