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The the material, efficient, formal, and final.

The debate between free will & fate has been conservatively talked about since time due to personal beliefs, religion or philosophers. The most famous theory about free will & fate is by Aristotle. Aristotle is an indeterminist which mean Aristotle sides with free will and denies the fact that events are predetermined and thinks that our actions determine our fate.     Aristotle was the first major philosopher to convincingly argue that fate/determinism does not exist and our actions are not predetermined, he proposed that there are four possible causes for event outcomes, the material, efficient, formal, and final. To expand on the four causes, the material cause is what something is made out of, the efficient cause is asking the question what did that?  For example, If a ball broke a window, then the ball is the efficient cause of the window breaking. The formal cause is what makes things one thing rather than many things, an example of this would be the human body, the human body is human, and the final cause is why formal causes do what they do and why efficient causes do what they do, an example of this would be why do rocks break glasses? The final causes would say because rocks are solid and hard while the glass is brittle and is capable of shattering.     In Aristotle metaphysics, he makes a case for chance and uncaused causes. Also, in Aristotle book “Nicomachean Ethics III” he developed a theory of voluntary or willing action, the theory states that the action has to have its source or cause in the actor. Aristotle also says that we have free will and we are able to make choice free of constraint but people make their choices based on the possible consequences.     An example of Aristotle theory applied to a story. 1. Born in Detroit 2. His family are fans of the Red Sox 3. Throughout entire life, he attends most games 4. Grew up watching his father drink alcohol at baseball games 5. Turns 21 and can now legally drink 6. Gets invited by his friends to watch the season final game live against the Yankees game. 7. Drank too many beers at the game 8. Red Sox lose the game 9. Being a huge fan Richard is not happy 10. Yankee fan bumps into Richard 11. Alcohol and a bad temper cause Richard assault the fan. Aristotle would say that Richard chose to drink thus he is responsible for his own actions.     Thus, Aristotle’s perspective on free will and fate is that he believes that people have the ability to choose, think and act voluntarily thus making their own fate, and incorporates metaphysics in his theory of why humans have free will. 

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