Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

The were sure that brucellosis cannot be


The study was conducted in two villages
affiliated to one district in Menoufia Gover norate. Out
of 537 participants, 495 (92.2%) were sure brucellosis can be transmitted from
animals to humans, 22 (4.1%) were not sure whether brucellosis can be
transmitted from animals to humans, whereas the remaining 3.7% were sure that
brucellosis cannot be transmitted from animals to humans.3

A descriptive cross-sectional study was
conducted at Kadoli village of Belagavi taluk .Total 190 contacts of the cases,
104 (54.7%) were men and 86 (45.3%) women. The predominant occupation of the
male participants was livestock handling (47.2%) and of female participants was
household work (36.0%). This difference was found to be statistically significant
(P < 0.0001) . The mean age of the participants was 24.57 ± 15.41 years. Majority were in the age group of 16 to 30 years (35.8%). Among the study participants, 47.4% of them showed signs and symptoms suggestive of brucellosis and were presumptively diagnosed as brucellosis, of which predominantly were in the age group of 1–15 years (66.6%).4 A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011among small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of Brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of Brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of Brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). 63% of the participants wanted more information about Brucellosis. 73% sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviors' and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes.5 A Cross sectional study was conducted among Livestock Owners in Jordan. A total of 537 farms (204 cattle herds and 333 small ruminant flocks) were involved in study.  100% said that they had heard about Brucellosis: 49.7% of them from media, 38.6% from local veterinarians, and 11.7% from other farmers. Around 90% of the participants were sure that sheep can be infected with Brucellosis, 62% were sure that goats can be infected with Brucellosis, and about 44% were sure that cattle can be infected with Brucellosis. On the other hand, more than 55% of the participants were sure that horses, donkeys, poultry, and dogs cannot be infected with Brucellosis.  76.4% of participants indicated that abortion is the most prominent clinical sign. A considerable proportion of participants also identified difficulties to become pregnant (61.3%), weight loss (59.5%), and drop in milk production (49%). Out of 537 participants, 495 (92.2%) declared that they were sure Brucellosis can be transmitted from animals to humans, 87% of the participants indicated that consumption of unpasteurized milk is associated with a high risk of infection. Conversely, direct transmission routes were perceived to be less dangerous. 6 A Cross sectional survey was conducted Between October and November 2013 in Kenya. A total of 120 participants were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices towards Brucellosis. The median age of the study participants was 16 years (Range: 15 – 70 years), with 102 (85%) aged below 35 years. There were 90 (75%) males; and 92 (77%) had no formal education. In regard to primary role of the study participants in management of the herd, 58 (48%) were herd owner, 38 (32%) were herders and 24 (20%) were involved mostly in milking animals in the herd. Eighty-three (69%) of the participants were married and 37 (31%) were single.7   A cross sectional study was conducted among smallholder farmers between February and June 2015 in Pakistan. Out Of the 431 selected smallholder dairy farmers, seven were not available for the interview and four refused to participate in the study. As a consequence a total of 420 dairy farmers participated in the study. The majority (64%) of farms were run by female members of the households. Overall, 46% of respondents had no formal education, while 12% reached intermediate (completed high school) or above. More than half of the households were comprised of 6–10 family members with 7.5% of households having over 15 members. Most of the participants were in the 25–54 age groups. The majority of participants had heard of animal brucellosis (70%), with only a quarter of participants having heard about human brucellosis (26%). Although 23% of farmers recognized that they can get any disease from animals, only 3% of farmers were aware of the modes (raw milk, contact with aborted foetus or placental membrane) of brucellosis transmission from animal to human.8       A Cross sectional study was conducted  in Uganda Between June and August 2012.A total of 371 participants from the three sub-counties in Kiruhura district were recruited into the study. 40 % of the participants were between ages 30 to 44 years (with median age of 40 and standard deviation 14.8 years) while 49% were males and 51% were females. Of these participants, 165 (44.5%) were from Kanyaryeru, 109 (26.1%) from Nyakashashara and 97 (29.4%) were from Sanga sub-counties. Majority of the participants were agro-pastoralists 181(49%), 165(45%) had attained primary education and 257(69%) were married. A majority of the participants (370, 99.3%) had ever heard about brucellosis which is commonly known as 'Brucella' in the study areas. Of these, 339 (91.4%) had heard about brucellosis in their area of residence mainly from friends, (157, 42.4%) of the participants and 309 (89.8%) said they heard about it in their area since the year 2000. Responses from the participants depicted that brucellosis affects all age groups and all sexes and 243 (66.2%) mentioned that the disease is not seasonal. Additionally, those who had ever heard about brucellosis, 222(59.8%) had a household member who had ever suffered from the disease. Two thirds of the participants (251, 67.7%) mentioned that close proximity to wild animals is the major factor that contributes to the increase of brucellosis in the study areas. The majority (360, 97.0%) of the participants from all occupations mentioned consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, especially milk. Majority of the participants (333, 89.8%) were aware that brucellosis is preventable in both humans and animals. Majority of the participants mentioned contaminated dairy products (340, 91.6%) and direct contact with contaminated birth products (212, 57.1%) as the most common risk factors of brucellosis.9 A Cross sectional study was conducted in Kenya. Out of the 384 respondents interviewed, 74.7% were males and the rest were females. The ages of the respondents ranged from 20 to 55 years, with a mean age of 39.94 years, median of 40 years and a standard deviation of 9.25 years. Regarding the marital status of the respondents, 4.2% were single (they had never been married), 91.7% were married and 4.2% were widowed, separated or divorced. Pertaining to the respondents' highest education level, a majority at 47.9% had received no formal education, 32.3% had received primary school level education, 15.1% had secondary school level education and a paltry 4.7% had tertiary level education. The practice of livestock examination during purchase, 98.4% indicated that they ensured that the livestock they were buying were examined before purchase to ensure they did not display any signs of disease or infection. Pertaining to the person who conducted the livestock examination, 97.9% indicated that they as the buyers conducted the examination, 89.3% indicated that a friend conducted the examination, 44.8% employed the services of a relative to examine the livestock and only 3.9% employed the services of an AHW to conduct the examination. Pertaining to livestock giving birth, 98.2% indicated that household members assisted in the livestock birthing process. Further, 100% of the respondents indicated that they neither used gloves, polythene bags on their hands, closed shoes, gumboots nor dustcoats as protective gear when assisting delivery. On the course of action taken when livestock were seen to abort, only 54.2% indicated that they sort veterinary assistance, 87% indicated that they would keep the animal, 1.0% slaughtered the aborting animal, and 0.8% sold it off to a willing buyer, while 1.0% sold it off for slaughter. Of all the respondents, only 2.1% indicated that they separated the aborting animal from the rest of the livestock. Regarding the course of action taken to manage the aborted fetal material, 81.5% disposed-off the livestock fetus into the bush, 1.3% burnt the fetus, 11.5% buried the fetus and 58.1% fed it to dogs and cats. On the practice of boiling milk for consumption and for tea-making, 100% indicated that they always boiled the milk, 99.5% indicated that during boiling, they allowed the milk to rise to the top of the metal pot ('sufuria') and 100% indicated that when making tea mixed with milk, the mixture was also allowed to rise to the top of the sufuria during the cooking process.10 An exploratory field study was conducted from April 2001 to March 2002. Among Animal Health Workers and Livestock Keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania In total, 36 animal health workers, 7 traditional livestock keepers, 6 pig keepers and 30 smallholders' dairy farmers participated in the questionnaire. 95% of the respondents, (both livestock keepers and animal health workers) indicated sharing their house with animals, consumption of animal products, milk or meat or blood, as the primary route for transmission of diseases to humans. Attending parturition, contact with placenta or intrauterine intervention was mentioned as a secondary route.  Intrauterine intervention was perceived by animal health workers to be a significantly more important route of transmission of disease to humans when compared to the perceptions of livestock keepers (P<0.05). Whereas 91% (n=39/43) of the livestock keepers perceived certain animal diseases could infect humans, this level of awareness was significantly higher in animal health workers and smallholders dairy keepers compared to traditional livestock keepers (P< 0.05). Very few livestock keepers (30%, 13/43) had adequate knowledge with respect to disease symptoms.11   A Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the Effect of Health Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of High School Students' Towards Brucellosis in Yazd, Iran among 130 male students. The results indicated that only 32% of respondents were aware about brucellosis as an endemic disease, the knowledge of students regarding to the signs of disease increased from 53.3 to 70.7% after intervention. The increment of knowledge and attitude was approximately the same in all courses. The knowledge and attitude of students and the practice based on self report regarding to raw milk ingestion and fresh cheese as a folklore was significantly increased after intervention. 12   A cross-sectional study was carried out in a village in Menufiya Governorate of Egypt. In June and July 2009, Out of the 107 participants responsible for rearing animals 89 (83.2%) were sure they had heard of a "disease named brucellosis" and 18 (16.8%) believed they had heard of the disease but were not sure. 103 (96.3%) participants correctly believed brucellosis is transmissible from animals to humans. 101 (94.4%) participants stated that most people in the village assist with calving, usually by pulling the calf out or removing foetal membranes and 102 (95.3%) participants thought most people in the village assist in the parturition of sheep and goats.13   A cross sectional study was done to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep in the Kafrelsheikh district of Egypt was carried out between February and July 2014. A total of 273 serum samples were collected from 28 sheep flocks in the 10 villages. The sera were examined by RBPT with agglutination recorded in 47 samples (17.95 %). Positive RBPT serum samples were confirmed by CFT with 16.48 % (45/273) of the samples being positive for both tests. Out of 26 shepherds who responded to the questionnaire, 16 (61 %) declared that brucellosis alone was the main causative agent of abortion in their flocks. Out of 18 shepherds, 10 (55.5 %) fed the aborted materials to their dogs while 5 (27.8 %) throw aborted materials into the water canals and only 3 (16.7 %) bury aborted materials. Out of 21 shepherds, 15 (71.4 %) keep aborted animals in their flocks for further breeding seasons. Five shepherds (23.8 %) would sell these animals and only one shepherd said that he slaughtered them.14   A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, BLDE University's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Vijapur, Karnataka, over a period of four years and two months from Oct 2008-Dec 2012. Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers.15   A cross-sectional study, prospective survey was conducted with 151 farmers in Digor town of Kars, between June-October 2013. In this study 87.8% of farmers had positive attitude, and 51.9% had positive practice. It was determined that 92.1% of the participants had an opinion that the animals should be regularly examined by the veterinarians against animal borne diseases, however only 35.8% of them practiced this. 98.7% stated that hands should be washed and 91.4% of the farmers expressed that they washed their hands. In addition, 92.1% of the participants declared that they thought gloves should be used while contacting animals. 84.1% of the participants considered it as necessary but in practice, 80.1% of the farmers knew that sick animal corpse should be buried deep. Regarding boiling the milk, 84.8% of the subjects stated that the milk should be boiled, and the ratio of those consuming milk by boiling was 57.0%. 16     A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 among abattoir workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo export abattoir, in Central Ethiopia. Questionnaire survey was conducted on 156 abattoir workers about their knowledge on brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Of these, 125 (80.1%) were men whilst 31 (19.9%) were women. The overall awareness level of abattoir workers toward brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases was 69 (44.2%) and 83 (53.2%), respectively (Table 3). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the knowledge about brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases among gender, age, marital status, residential background and duration on job (p>0.05). Knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases of post
secondary workers was 15 (68.2%) and 19 (86.5%), respectively, while that of
veterinarian was 12 (100%). Statistically significant difference was observed
in the knowledge about brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases of those post secondary
school background with the other level of education, respectively (p=0.010 and
p=0.001). Similarly, statistically significant difference was observed in the
knowledge about the diseases by that of the veterinarians than other worker
classes (p= 0.001) and (p=0.009).17

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observational, prospective study was carried for a period of six years (June
1997 to May 2003) at S.P.Medical College and A.G.Hospitals, Bikaner on 175
patients. Patients of brucellosis presented with a wide
spectrum of clinical manifestations. Out of 175 cases 155 were from rural area.
Age ranged between 12-60 years (124 males, 51 females). Analysis of risk
factors revealed history of raw milk ingestion (86.86%), occupational contact
with animals (81.14%), handling of infected material (62.28%), household
contact (16%) and 2 patients were veterinarian. Joint pain (83.43%) and fever
(77.71%) were the commonest presenting feature. Sacroiliac joint was most
commonly involved (46.86%). 31 cases had involvement of multiple joints.18



prospective laboratory based study was conducted in the department of
Microbiology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Among   veterinarians, 100 slaughter house workers and
100 adults who were not exposed to the risk of Brucellosis as controls were
included in the study. Among one hundred Veterinarians, 14(14%)
were seropositive for Brucella antibodies. Out of 100 slaughter house workers,
26 (26%) were seropositive. None of the serum samples of healthy adults were
positive for antibodies against Brucella. Most of the (30.76%) seropositive
veterinarians were in the age group of 51 to 60 years and slaughter house
workers were in the 11-20 years age group (66.6%).The lowest prevalence of
brucellosis was observed among veterinary doctors 6.66% and highest prevalence
of brucellosis is among veterinary inspectors 19.04%.19


Case series study of Brucellosis was carried out in a tertiary care hospital of
North Karnataka. A total of 10 cases with brucellosis
were included in the study. Majority of patients were from rural areas (8 out
of 10). There were 6 males and 4 females. The age distribution was between
16-35 years. Direct contact was found to be significantly most important
predisposing risk factor. Fever and joint pains were the main presenting symptoms.
Low hemoglobin (7 cases), relative lymphocytosis (5 cases), low platelet (3
cases), raised creatinine (4 cases) and altered liver function (5 cases) were


cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women at the Gynecology
Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
from March to June 2013. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence
interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive.
Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive
cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the
experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity
for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p<0.05). In multiple logistic regression models only the contact with animals remained as independent and robust risk factor (odds ratio 5.21; 95 % CI: 1.88-13.75; p=0.001) for seropositivity.21


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