Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Tourism that warrant protection from the risks

Tourism in the Arctic is expanding, and the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME)is looking at measures and guidelines to promote sustainable marine tourism (NMCE, 2016). ThePAME Working Group has conducted an assessment of Arctic shipping that use/ carriage of HeavyFuel Oil (HFO). PAME has also assessed the need to designate areas in the high seas area of theArctic Ocean that warrant protection from the risks posed by shipping, and has identified possiblemeasures to reduce the risk of environmental damage. Tourism poses a risk to the environment andis also a human risk in the event of a serious shipping incident in which the many thousands oftourists on a single vessel are likely to strain rescue operations (Triggs, 2011). In response to theconcern that tourists adversely affect the places they visit, IAATO developed a code of conduct fortourists that attempts to minimize their effects on the environment. Visitors on board IAATO memberexpeditions are reminded, for example, to stay with the group when ashore and to leave nothingbehind, and cautioned not to disturb wildlife, walk on fragile plants, interfere with protected areas orscientific research, enter historic huts unless escorted by an authorized person, or smoke during shoreexcursions (Bauer and Dowling, 2003).Additional IAATO guidelines require tour operators to be familiar with the Act and to abide by it,to be aware of protected areas, to enforce the visitor code of conduct, to hire a professional teamof expedition leaders, to provide a qualified lecturer/naturalist guide for every 20-25 passengers tosupervise small groups ashore, and to limit the number ashore at any one place and time to 100passengers (Bauer and Dowling, 2003).In the Arctic, growing concerns about the relationship between tourism and the environment have begunto be addressed through the World Wide Fund for Nature’s Arctic Tourism Project (1995–2000),which aimed to use tourism to promote conservation and to maximize benefits of tourism to localcommunities (Humphreys et al., 1998; Mason, 1997). Furthermore, a number of communities andgovernments have implemented restrictions appropriate to their individual circumstances and concernsfor example, such as Svalbard. The implementation and effectiveness of efforts has becomean additional focus. A combination of codes of conduct and an evolving legislative framework hasmuch to offer an Arctic-wide strategy (Johnston, 1997). Along these lines, the approach to naturemanagement in Svalbard, commonly touted in Norway as the best managed wilderness in the world,offers insights for Arctic management (Stewart et al., 2005).Polar code: The polar code that entered into the force from 1 January 2017 related to the protectionof the environment in flowing ways.1. It applies to ships operating in Arctic waters: additional to existing MARPOL (MARPOL,1973) requirements:2. It provides for safe ship operation and protects the environment by addressing the unique riskspresent in polar waters but not covered by other instrumentsSpecific to the, discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship is prohibited, doublehull and double bottom required for all oil tankers, including those less than 5000 dwt (A/B shipsconstructed on or after 1 January 2017), heavy fuel oil is banned. Ships are encouraged not to useor carry heavy fuel oil in the Arctic and consider using non-toxic biodegradable lubricants or waterbasedsystems in lubricated components outside the underwater hull with direct seawater interfaces.Measures to be taken to minimize the risk of invasive aquatic species through ships’ ballast water andbiofouling. No discharge of sewage in polar waters allowed (except under specific circumstances.(discharge is permitted if ship has an approved sewage treatment plant, and discharges treated sewageas far as practicable from the nearest land, any fast ice, ice shelf, or areas of specified ice concentra-


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