Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

UNIVERSITY and socio-economic activities. Management structure of

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

FIELD ATTACHMENT REPORT

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AT KENYA MARINE AND FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE –
KISUMU JULY 7, 2017 – SEPTEMBER 1, 2017

SUBMITTED BY:
OTIENO ODUOR
VINCENT
J49/5052/2015
In partial
fulfillment of Field Attachment for the award of the degree
Of
BSc. FISHERIES AND
AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT

 

Acknowledgement

 

Summary

 

Contents
Acknowledgement. i
Summary. ii
Introduction. 1
Background. 1
Management
structure of KMFRI. 1
KMFRI
Objectives. 1
Student’s
Objectives. 2
Activities. 3
Chemistry
Lab. 3
Biology
Lab. 5
Microbiology
Lab. 8
Aquaculture
Section. 8
Challenges. 11
Conclusion. 12
Recommendations. 13
References. 14
 

 

Introduction

Background

KMFRI – KISUMU CENTRE
is located to the west of Kisumu town on the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria. It
was established as one of the centres for the East Africa Freshwater Research Organization
prior to its breakup in 1977. It later assumed its role after the enactment of
the Science and Technology (Amendment) Act in 1979. Kisumu centre was tasked
with conducting research and coming up with management recommendations that
were essential for the national exploitation of marine and freshwater
resources.

The center runs a
number of research activities in fisheries, aquaculture, environment, ecology
and socio-economic activities.

Management structure of KMFRI

KMFRI is headed by a
Director, who has four Deputy Directors who are in charge of marine and coastal
systems, freshwater systems, finance and administration, and aquaculture. There
are other ten assistant directors under the Deputy Directors, who are in charge
of Marine Fisheries, Oceanography and Hydrography, Freshwater Fisheries,
Limnology, Socio-economics, Mariculture, Freshwater Aquaculture, Supply chain
Management, Finance and Planning, Administration and Human Resource, and
Information Communication Technology.

KMFRI-Kisumu centre is
headed by the Deputy Director (directorate of freshwater systems) as the centre
director who is deputized by the Assistant Director freshwater fisheries.

KMFRI Objectives

As stated under KMFRI’s
Strategic Plan 2016 – 2020, the following are the set objectives:

Ø  To
conduct innovative, demand-driven and relevant research in aquatic ecosystems

Ø  To
disseminate research information and innovative technologies to stakeholders

Ø  To
undertake research on promotion of investments in the Blue economy

Ø  To
increase community participation and promote outreach programs

Ø  To
mobilize financial and human resources to implement KMFRI’s core functions and
development research infrastructure

Ø  To
strengthen institutional structure and capacity, and

Ø 
To promote local and international
collaborations and partnerships.

Student’s
Objectives

Ø  To
apply the theories and skills acquired in a real work environment

Ø  To
get expose to technologies which are not available in the University

Ø  To
familiarize with the current trends in work environment and what to expect.

Ø  To
build the student’s strength, teamwork spirit and self-confidence

Ø 
To develop skills in data gathering, analysis
and recording

Activities

There are four major research sections in
KMFRI-Kisumu Centre. These include Chemistry Lab, Biology Lab, Microbiology Lab
and Aquaculture section.

Chemistry
Lab

This section is
responsible for the collection of samples and analysis of various water quality
parameters. Some of the most commonly analyzed water quality parameters are
alkalinity, water hardness, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids,
chlorophyll ‘A’ and nutrients in a sample.

During the attachment
period, the student was taken through all the above analysis procedures, guided
by the Chemistry Lab Manual for standard procedures. The results obtained from
the various procedures done by the student were as follows:

Analysis of water
hardness using pond water and aquarium water

Titration

Aquarium
water

Pond
water

Volume
of water sample (ml)

50

50

Final
Burette reading of EDTA solution (ml)

11.5

13.8

Initial
Burette reading of EDTA solution (ml)

10.0

11.5

Volume
of EDTA added (ml)

1.5

2.3

Table 1: Titration
results for water hardness test

The concentrations
(mg/L) were then calculated as follows;

Factor =

            =

            = 20

Hardness for Aquarium
water =
                                                  =30 mg/L

Hardness for Pond water
=
                                         
= 46 mg/L

These results were then
compared to WHO standards for water hardness.

Concentration (mg/L)

Degree of Hardness

180

Very hard

Table 2: Water hardness
table

And from this, both
Aquarium water and Pond water were found to be soft.

Alkalinity for the same
water sample was also done as per the Chemistry Lab standard procedures and
results were recorded as shown in Table 3 below.

Samples

Volume of Sample used (ml)

Burette reading

Volume of HCL used (ml)

Initial

Final

Aquarium water

50

5.7

7.1

1.4

Pond water

50

7.5

10.4

2.9

Table 3: Titration
results for alkalinity test

Using the factor 20,
alkalinity was calculated as follows:

Alkalinity for aquarium
water =
                                                 
=28 mg/L

Alkalinity for Pond
water =
                                          
=58 mg/L

Nutrient analysis
(silicates, total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, total
nitrates and nitrites), chlorophyll ‘A’, total dissolved solids and total
suspended solids were among other test that the student was taken through. In
addition to that, the student also did prepare standards (solution/ingredient
of high purity) and preparation of mixed reagent which was used in total
phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus analysis.

The student also got to
learn how to operate some of the equipment in this lab such as the
spectrophotometer, cadmium reducing column, autoclave, analytical balance and
centrifuge.

Biology
Lab

In this Lab, the
student, with the guidance of the lab technician, did the following:

       I.           
Introduction to Biology Lab
classification

The student was tasked
with the identification of certain fish species. One of the common fishes in
Lake Victoria, commonly known as Red-Brest tilapia/ngege, was identified and
described as shown Table 4 below:

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordate

Class

Actinopterigri

Order

Perciformes

Family

Cichlidae

Genus

Coptodon

Species

rendalii

Table 4: taxonomy of
Red-Brest Tilapia

Red-Brest Tilapia’s
juveniles feed on planktons, adults feed mainly on higher plants and algae,
insects and crustaceans. They are mainly found in freshwater, brackish water
and/or benthopelagic habitats.

    II.           
Meristic and Morphometric

Meristic was described
as  and morphometric described as
measurement. These are important parameters in taxonomy.

 III.           
Feeding habits

There are four basic
eating groups among fish; carnivores, herbivores, omnivores and limnivores.

                   
i.           
Carnivores

These are the meat eating fish. They
feed on smaller fish, and other organisms such as worms, mosquito larvae, fruit
flies and shrimps. They do not damage plant life. Carnivores can be fed on
supplements in form of flakes or granules and pellets for added nutrition.

                 
ii.           
Herbivores

These are fishes that feed on plants.
Recommended food for these type of feeders are cucumber, peas, potatoes,
vegetable flakes and algal flakes.

               
iii.           
Omnivores

These feed on both herbs and meat. They
are veracious eaters, their eating frenzy can be easily mistaken for hunger.

               
iv.           
Limnivores

They are also known as mud-eaters. They
feed mainly on algae and micro-organisms in the aquarium/pond. These group of
fish are constantly eating and can be given pellets and algae based food.

 IV.           
Collection, observation and
identification of phytoplankton and zooplankton

                   
i.           
Phytoplankton

They were described as the autotrophic
components. Most of them are too small to be seen, however, when present in
high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on
water surface. This is attributed to the presence of chlorophyll within their
cells and accessory pigment.

Phytoplankton obtain energy through the
process of photosynthesis, therefore, live in the well-lit surface layer/
euphotic zone of an ocean, sea or lake.

For the purpose of experimentation, some
sample water were collected from a fish pond and placed in different petri
dishes. The specimen was then stained using lugal solution and observed under a
compound microscope (×40). The figure below shows some of the observed and hand
drawn phytoplanktons.

Figure
1: Phytoplanktons identified in the pond water sample

                 
ii.           
Zooplankton

These include the group of animals
suspended in water with limited power of locomotion. They are usually denser
than water and constantly sink by gravity to lower depths. Fresh water
zooplanktons include protozoans, rotifers and two subclasses of crustaceans,
cladocerans and copepods.

To collect/sample zooplankton, the
following materials are required;

·        
Tow nets/zooplankton net

·        
Bucket

·        
5% Formalin/70% ethanol

·        
Glass containers

                  Procedure

Ø 
From the shore, cast the zooplankton net
in to the lake

Ø 
Slowly pull the net through the water as
it is retrieved

Ø 
The collected sample is then poured into
the glass containers then preserved using 5% formalin/70% ethanol

Note:
Soft bodied forms require special handling.

      After collection, the samples were
observed and recorded/drown as shown in the figure 2 below;

Figure 2: Ostracods

 

Microbiology Lab

On
the first day in this lab, was given an overview of various methods used in
micro-organism analysis, media types and categories, types of sterilization and
media preparation procedure.

All
the media were prepared as per

Aquaculture
Section

Aquaculture section is
composed of the aquariums and the fish ponds. During the attachment period,
more focused was put on the aquarium section. The student was enlightened on
the theories about aquarium before embarking on practical work. Aquarium was
defined as any vivarium with at least one transparent side used for captivity
of aquatic organisms.  Aquariums were
divided into two major categories;

       I.           
Balanced Aquarium – these depicts the
natural environment of aquatic organism.

    II.           
Supported/Supplied/Controlled Aquarium –
these are supplemented with accessories to resemble the natural environment of
aquatic organism.

Constituents of
Aquarium

       I.           
Gravel – acts as the bottom or as a media which
supports growth of plants

    II.           
Filters –

 III.           
Hideouts – these are used by fish to reduce
trauma

 IV.           
Lighting system – this is important for
photosynthesis, geological cycles and visibility

    V.           
Plants (Artificial/Natural) – natural plants
acts as food while the artificial ones are meant for aesthetic value.

 VI.           
Background paper for beauty

VII.           
Aquarium thermometer

VIII.           
Heaters – this is used to keep the water above
240C

 IX.           
Air pumps/aerators – to maintain supply of
dissolved oxygen in the water

    X.           
Canopy/Lid – used to prevent high jumpers from
jumping out, predators from entering, reduces rate of evaporation and prevent
entry of dust in to the aquarium

The student was also taken through
care and maintenance of aquarium, which was also classified into two
categories;

                  
I.           
Partial cleaning

Aquarium walls were cleaned using sponge
and water siphoned out by the help of a hose pipe, and then de-chlorinated
water was added from the reservoir tank. This partial cleaning was done to
improve water quality.

               
II.           
Complete cleaning

This involves overall cleaning of the
aquarium tank with the exception of the stock. To do a complete cleaning of
aquarium tank, the following material are required; sponge, scouring steel,
sand, scoop net, bucket and pipes.

Procedure

Ø         
Using a hose pipe, some water were
siphoned from the aquarium tank into the bucket ensuring that the sand is
pushed to one side of the tank

Ø         
The scoop net was then used to transfer
the fish from the aquarium into the bucket of water

Ø         
Accessories in the aquarium tank were
removed and washed separately

Ø         
The walls of the aquarium tank were
scrubbed using sand and scouring steel

Ø         
After which it was rinsed several times
until the water became clear

It was recommended that no detergents
was to be used in cleaning any aquarium tank.

Ø         
Water was then added from the reservoir
tank and left to mature for 8 hours.

Construction of glass
aquarium

With the guidance of
the Lab technician, the student constructed a glass aquarium. Materials used
for the construction were; 9mm thick glass, silicon gun filled with silicon
sealant, masking tape, liquid detergent, sharpening stone, diamond glass
cutter, turpentine and a working bench.

Procedure

Ø The
glass was placed on a working bench and cleaned thoroughly

Ø Using
a 1 m ruler, different measurements of the glass were taken (90×50 mm for the base
and 50×48 mm for the height) and marked

Ø A
line was then made along the marks using the diamond glass cutter with
turpentine once

Ø Cut
glass pieces were joined together temporarily using a masking tape

Ø They
were then fixed, at 45o, using silicon sealant at the edges

Ø Liquid
detergent was then used to smoothen the edges. Then left for 48 hours to dry

Ø After
drying up, the tank was then filled with water to check for leaks and to remove
toxins in the sealant. Water was kept in the tank for three weeks to completely
absorb the toxins from the sealant

Other significant
activities that the student did in this section include sorting sample for
laboratory analysis (Nile cabbage), grinding of shrimps and dry ‘omena’ for the
production of fish feeds, discussed various methods of obtaining fish for
aquarium captivity and various fishing gears used, classification of fish, and various
fish diseases, their causes, prevention and treatment measures.

 

Challenges

Conclusion

 

Recommendations

 

 

References

http://www.kmfri.co.ke/index.php/about-us/strategic-plan-2016-2020

Manual of Methods in
Chemical Analysis of Water – KENYA MARINE AND FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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